o-ending verbal bases (karo)
Conjugation of o-ending verbal base (karo)
karoti = does, performs
The o-ending verbal base does not undergo any change and just takes up the terminations related to the present tense.
All the o-ending verbal bases conjugate like ‘karo’ (karoti) in the Present Tense. There are very few verbal bases which end in ‘o’. Some examples are :
- tanoti = stretches, extends,
- suṇoti (same as suṇāti) = listens,
- sakkoti = is able / capable,
- pappoti = reaches, attains,
- abhisaṅkharoti = prepares, arranges
We will now translate a few sentences containing conjugated forms of o-ending verbal bases in the Present Tense. These sentences are adopted from the Tipitaka.
1. So ce me āyasmā dhammaṃ deseti, sakkaccaṃyeva suṇomi, no asakkaccaṃ.
ce = sace = if, me = to me, āyasmā = venerable,
sakkaccaṃyeva = sakkaccaṃ + yeva
sakkaccaṃ = carefully, respectfully;
yeva = eva = just, so, even (emphatic particle); no = na = no, not
asakkaccaṃ (opp. of sakkaccaṃ)
Translation : If that venerable one teaches dhamma to me, I (will) listen to it carefully (respectfully), not carelessly (disrespectfully).
2. Appamatto hi jhāyanto pappoti paramaṃ sukhaṃ
appamatta = heedful, hi = indeed, surely;
jhāyanta = one who meditates, parama = supreme, excellent;
sukha = happiness.
Translation : One who meditates heedfully surely attains supreme happiness.
3. Mayaṃ tesaṃ aññatitthiyānaṃ paribbājakānaṃ evaṃ byākaroma
tesaṃ = to those,
añña = another, titthiya = adherent / follower of a sect,
aññatitthiya = follower of another sect,
paribbājaka = wandering religious mendicant,
byākaroti / vyākaroti = explains, answers
Translation : Thus / in this manner we answer (explain to) the wandering religious mendicants (renunciants) belonging to other sects – ….
4. Aññaṃ bhikkhuṃ upāsikā sakkaronti garuṃ karonti mānenti pūjenti, na maṃ upāsikā sakkaronti garuṃ karonti mānenti pūjenti.
bhikkhu = monk, upāsikā = (female) lay follower,
sakkaroti = honours, garu = esteemed, honoured;
garuṃ karoti = respects; māneti = reveres, pūjeti = venerates,
maṃ = (to) me
Translation : The (female) lay followers honour, respect, revere and venerate another monk; they do not honour, respect, revere and venerate me.
5. So tasmiṃ āsane nisinno tassā kathāya neva ādiṃ manasi karoti na majjhaṃ manasi karoti na pariyosānaṃ manasi karoti.
tasmiṃ āsane = on that seat, nisinna = seated, tassā = to that,
kathā = speech, talk; neva = na + eva, neva = neither, ādi = beginning,
majjha = middle, pariyosāna = ending, conclusion;
manasi karoti = bears in mind, takes to heart, considers, pays attention
Translation : Seated on that seat, he does not pay attention to the beginning of that talk, to the middle, or to the ending / conclusion (of the talk).
6. Yaṃ kho ahaṃ idaṃ kāyena kammaṃ karomi idaṃ me kāyakammaṃ nevattabyābādhāyapi saṃvattati na parabyābādhāyapi saṃvattati, na ubhayabyābādhāyapi saṃvattati - kusalaṃ idaṃ kāyakammaṃ sukhudrayaṃ sukhavipākaṃ.
yaṃ = what, which; kho = surely, really; idaṃ = this,
kamma = action, me = my, mine;
kāyakamma = bodily action,
nevattabyābādhāyapi = neva (na + eva) + atta + byābādhāya + api
neva = neither, atta = self, byābādha = injury, harm, hurt; api = also,
saṃvattati = leads to, para = other, ubhaya = both,
kusala = wholesome, skillful; udraya = yielding, causing;
sukhudraya = causing happiness, vipāka = effect, result, consequence;
sukhavipāka = resulting into happiness
Translation : The action that I am doing with my body, this bodily action of mine surely does not lead to my harm, harm to others or harm to both. This bodily action is wholesome, causing happiness, resulting in happiness.
vacīkamma = verbal action
manokamma = mental action