a-ending verbal bases (bhāsa)
Conjugation of a-ending verbal base (bhāsa)
bhāsati = speaks
The salient feature of a-ending verbal bases : the last vowel ‘a’ gets strengthened into ‘ā’ in case of first person (bhāsāmi, bhāsāma)
All the a-ending verbal bases conjugate like ‘bhāsa’ (bhāsati) in the Present Tense. We have learnt many such verbs so far.
- gacchati = goes,
- carati = walks, conducts;
- āruhati = climbs, ascends;
- patati = falls,
- sayati = sleeps,
- nisīdati = sits,
- āharati = brings,
- tiṭṭhati = stands, stops
- upasaṅkamati = approaches,
- vandati = salutes, pays respect
We will now translate a few sentences containing conjugated forms of a-ending verbal bases in the Present Tense. These sentences are adopted from the Tipitaka.
1. Paṇḍitā kāyena ca vācāya ca sucaritaṃ caranti. Bālā kāyena ca vācāya ca duccaritaṃ caranti.
paṇḍita = wise man, kāya = body, ca = and, vācā = speech,
sucarita = good conduct / action, carati = behaves, acts, conducts
bāla = foolish person, duccarita = bad / wrong conduct
Translation : Wise men do (conduct) good actions (behave in a proper manner) by body and speech. Foolish persons behave in a bad / improper manner by body and speech.
2. Tvaṃ agāraṃ ajjhāvasasi kāme paribhuñjasi.
tvaṃ = you, agāra = house, ajjhāvasati = lives, inhabits;
kāma = pleasure, enjoyment, sense object, (object of sense desire);
paribhuñjati = uses, enjoys
Translation : You live / dwell at home (and) enjoy sense pleasures.
3. Jātidhammānaṃ sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati –
jāti = birth, dhamma = nature, law, quality;
jātidhamma = of the nature of being born / taking birth, (subject to birth)
satta = being, evaṃ = thus, in this way, such; icchā = wish, desire;
uppajjati = arises, comes into existence
Translation : Such a desire arises for / of the beings subject to birth –
4. Na socāmi na rodāmi na tvaṃ bhāyāmi āvuso.
na = no, not; socati = grieves, mourns; rodati = cries, tvaṃ = you,
bhāyati = fears, is afraid; āvuso (vocative) = friend, brother
Translation : O friend! I do not grieve, (I do) not cry and I am not afraid of you.
5. Ete mayaṃ bhavantaṃ gotamaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāma dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca.
ete = these, mayaṃ = we, bhavanta = sir, honourable;
gotama = a person belonging to Gotama clan (also used for the Buddha)
saraṇa = refuge, bhikkhusaṅgha = the order of monks
Translation : We (these us) go for refuge to the honourable Gotama (Buddha), Dhamma and the order of monks.
It can simply be translated as – We take refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.