We have so far studied the Personal Pronouns, Demonstrative Pronouns and Interrogative Pronouns in Pali. In this Unit, we will learn in detail about the Relative Pronouns.

The relative pronoun is called as ‘ya’ and, it declines in three genders like the demonstrative and interrogative pronouns. The relative pronouns are used to relate or narrate something about persons or things (nouns).

Let us study the declension of pronoun ‘ya’ and translate some simple Pali sentences containing its declined forms.


Declension of relative pronoun ‘ya

Masculine : yo

Case Singular Plural
Paṭhamā yo ye
Dutiyā yaṃ ye
Tatiyā yena yehi, yebhi
Catutthī yassa yesaṃ, yesānaṃ
Pañcamī yasmā, yamhā yehi, yebhi
Chaṭṭhī yassa yesaṃ, yesānaṃ
Sattamī yasmiṃ, yamhi yesu


Neuter : yaṃ

Case Singular Plural
Paṭhamā yaṃ ye, yāni
Dutiyā yaṃ ye, yāni
The declension of neuter pronoun ‘ya’ is similar to that of masculine pronoun ‘ya’ for Instrumental to Locative cases.


Feminine :

Case Singular Plural
Paṭhamā yā, yāyo
Dutiyā yaṃ yā, yāyo
Tatiyā yāya yāhi, yābhi
Catutthī yassā, yāya yāsaṃ, yāsānaṃ
Pañcamī yāya yāhi, yābhi
Chaṭṭhī yassā, yāya yāsaṃ, yāsānaṃ
Sattamī yassaṃ, yāyaṃ yāsu

The usage of cases is the same across all the nouns, pronouns etc.

Last modified: Monday, 6 May 2024, 3:34 PM