So far, we have seen the use of ‘ta’ and ‘eta’ as personal pronouns. In other words, we translated these pronouns as ‘he’, ‘she’, and ‘it’. The pronouns ‘ta’ and ‘eta’ are also used as demonstrative pronouns where they are translated as ‘this’ and ‘that’.

i.e. ta = that,
eta = this.

Thus, so, and taṃ can be translated as ‘that’ for masculine, feminine, and neuter genders, respectively. And eso, esā and etaṃ can be translated as ‘this’ for masculine, feminine, and neuter genders, respectively.

Let us study some examples to understand this concept.

that boy = so kumāro

this girl = esā kaññā

that house = taṃ gehaṃ

this fruit = etaṃ phalaṃ

The declined forms of ‘ta’ and ‘eta’ are used to indicate ‘to this’, ‘with that’, ‘from that’, ‘of this’ etc.


1. This girl is the doctor’s daughter.
Esā kaññā vejjassa dhītā atthi.
(esā : fem. nom. s – subject of the sentence)

2. The teacher calls that boy.
Ācariyo taṃ kumāraṃ pakkosati.
(taṃ : masc. acc. s – object)

3. We wish to eat these fruits.
Mayaṃ etāni phalāni bhuñjituṃ icchāma.
(etāni : neut. acc. p – object)

4. The thieves came to the village from that mountain.
Corā tasmā / tamhā pabbatasmā gāmaṃ āgamiṃsu.
(tasmā / tamhā : masc. abl. s – pabbata is a masculine noun)

5. The merchant will give food to these beggars.
Vāṇijo etesaṃ / etesānaṃ yācakānaṃ bhattaṃ dadissati.
(etesaṃ / etesānaṃ : masc. dat. p)

6. That is the king’s palace.
So bhūpālassa pāsādo (atthi).
(so : masc. nom. s – subject. pāsāda is a masculine noun)

Please note that in sentences of this type, the verb is often dropped. While reading the Pali sentence the corresponding verbs – is, are (hoti, atthi, santi, etc.) – are assumed.
Thus we can write this sentence as : So bhūpālassa pāsādo.

7. The farmer’s wife puts the harvest in these baskets.
Kassakassa bhariyā etesu piṭakesu dhaññaṃ pakkhipati.
(etesu : neut. loc. p – piṭaka is a neuter noun)

8. There are lotuses and fish(es) in that pond.
Tāyaṃ pokkharaṇiyaṃ padumāni ca macchā ca santi.
(tāyaṃ : fem. loc. s – pokkharaṇī is a feminine noun)

9. The sons of these female lay devotees will be virtuous men.
Etāsānaṃ upāsikānaṃ puttā sappurisā bhavissanti.
(etāsānaṃ : fem. gen. p)

10. The sailor crossed that river with (by) this boat.
Nāviko etāya nāvāya taṃ nadiṃ atari.
(that river = taṃ nadiṃ – object – fem. acc. s : nadī is a feminine noun;
with / by this boat = etāya nāvāya – fem. inst. s : nāvā is a feminine noun)

Last modified: Friday, 24 November 2023, 11:22 AM