The pali word ‘iti’ or the shortened form ‘ti’ is translated as ‘thus’ or ‘as’.
This word has various uses. It can indicate a name, designation or some attribute of a noun, thoughts or realisation of a person etc. It also replaces quotation marks in Pali suttas and demarcates individual sentences in a dialogue or conversation.
Let us understand these uses with the help of a few examples.
1. …… ‘dussīlo’ iti vuccati.
dussīla = immoral,
iti = as, thus;
vuccati = is said, is called
Translation : (so and so / such a person) is called as ‘immoral’.
2. “……” iti vuttaṃ mahesinā.
vutta = said,
mahesī = the great sage (Buddha)
Translation : “…………” Thus said the Great Sage / Buddha. (Thus / this is said by the Great Sage.)
3. Sutavā ariyasāvako iti paṭisañcikkhati. ….
sutavā = learned,
ariyasāvaka = noble disciple,
paṭisañcikkhati = thinks, considers, reflects;
Translation : The learned noble disciple thinks thus ….
4. Iti kho, bhikkhave, yadaniccaṃ taṃ dukkhaṃ.
yadaniccaṃ = yaṃ + aniccaṃ
yaṃ = (that) which;
taṃ = that,
Translation : Thus, O monks! That which is impermanent is painful / unpleasant / unsatisfactory.
5. Atha kho Somā bhikkhunī “māro ayaṃ pāpimā” iti viditvā ….
atha = then,
bhikkhunī = nun,
ayaṃ = this,
pāpimā = the evil one,
viditvā = having known
Translation : Having known thus – “This is Mara, the evil one”, the nun Soma then ………. (said something to him)
6. (Seeing and knowing thus, one’s taints are exhausted)
… iti rūpaṃ iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo, iti vedanā … pe … iti saññā … iti saṅkhārā … iti viññāṇaṃ iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo.
samudaya = arising, origin;
atthaṅgama = end, cessation
Translation : Thus (such) is form, thus is the origin of form, thus is the cessation of form, thus is feeling …. thus is perception … thus are the volitional formations …. thus is consciousness, thus is the origin of consciousness, thus is the cessation of consciousness.
Pe = Peyyāla. It indicates that certain lines or a passage has been omitted.