ī-ending Feminine Nouns (itthī)
Declension of ī-ending Feminine Nouns
‘ī’- ending Feminine Noun: itthī
itthī = woman
|itthi, itthī||itthī, itthīyo|
Similar to the ā-ending feminine noun vanitā (from Unit 6), we can observe that the above feminine nouns too have the a declined form (singular) common to instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive and locative cases.
Please note that the ā-ending feminine nouns have this declined form ending in āya – e.g. vanitāya, kaññāya, paññāya; the i, ī, u and ū-ending feminine nouns have the declined form ending in yā – e.g. bhūmiyā, rattiyā, itthiyā, nadiyā. The translation of this declined form depends on the context in which it is used.
Let us translate a few sentences containing declined forms of the noun itthī
Itthī kaññāhi saddhiṃ vanaṃ gacchati.
The woman goes to the forest along with girls.
itthī = nominative singular (subject)
The verb gacchati (ending in ‘ti) indicates that the subject is singular.
Itthī kaññāhi saddhiṃ vanaṃ gacchanti.
The women go to the forest along with girls.
itthī = nominative plural (subject)
The verb gacchanti (ending in ‘nti) indicates that the subject is plural.
Ācariyo itthīhi saddhiṃ bhāsati.
The teacher speaks with the women.
itthīhi = instrumental plural
Yācakā itthīhi dhanaṃ yācanti.
The beggars beg for money from the women.
itthīhi = ablative plural
Itthīnaṃ puttā ca kaññāyo ca uyyānamhi kīḷanti.
Sons and daughters of the women play in the park
itthīnaṃ = genitive plural
Vāṇijā itthīnaṃ nagarasmā bhaṇḍāni āharanti.
The merchants bring goods for the women from the town.
itthīnaṃ = dative plural
Yuvati itthiyā saha bhāsati.
The maiden speaks with a woman.
itthiyā = instrumental singular (instrumental case can be easily identified if used with the words ‘saddhiṃ’ or ‘saha’)
Samaṇo itthiyā dhammaṃ deseti.
The monk teaches dhamma to a woman.
itthiyā = dative singular (the woman is recipient / beneficiary / indirect object)
Dārako itthiyā khīraṃ yācati.
The child asks for milk from a woman.
itthiyā = ablative singular
Itthiyā putto bhūpālassa amacco bhavati.
The woman’s son becomes a minister of the king.
itthiyā = genitive singular
Some other ī-ending feminine nouns which decline like itthī are :
- nārī = woman
- bhaginī = sister
- brāhmaṇī = brahmin woman
- bhikkhunī = nun
- rājinī / devī = queen
- pokkharaṇī = pond, lake
- vāpī = a well
- kumārī = girl
- gāvī = cow
- nadī = river