e-ending verbal bases (dese)
Conjugation of e-ending verbal base (dese)
An important point to note in case of e-ending verbal bases is that the ending vowel ‘e’ can get modified into an ‘aya’. Thus all e-ending verbal bases will have two alternate forms, ‘e’-ending and ‘aya’-ending.
Thus dese = desaya
deseti / desayati = teaches
- The e-ending verbal bases have two alternate forms - e-ending & aya-ending – and thus show two separate conjugations
- The e-ending form does not undergo any change and just takes up the terminations related to the present tense.
- The aya-ending form behaves like other ‘a’-ending verbal bases due to its last vowel and thus strengthening of a to ā can be seen in case of first person.
All the e-ending verbal bases conjugate like ‘dese’ (deseti / desayati) in the Present Tense.
- katheti / kathayati = tells, speaks;
- cinteti / cintayati = thinks,
- jāleti / jālayati = lights, kindles;
- pūjeti / pūjayati = worships, honours;
- coreti / corayati = steals,
- pāleti / pālayati = protects,
- vajjeti / vajjayati = abandons,
- sajjeti / sajjayati = prepares, decorates;
- oloketi / olokayati = looks, observes;
- bhāveti / bhāvayati = develops, cultivates
Let us translate a few sentences adopted from the Suttas, which contain conjugated forms of e-ending verbal bases in the Present Tense.
1. Ye kho, āvuso, rāgappahānāya dhammaṃ desenti, dosappahānāya dhammaṃ desenti, mohappahānāya dhammaṃ desenti, te loke dhammavādino.
ye = those who, rāga = greed, dosa = hatred, moha = delusion,
pahāna = abandonment, giving up; loka = world,
vādī = one who speaks, asserts;
dhammavādī = one speaking in accordance with the Dhamma
Translation : O friend, those who teach Dhamma for abandonment of greed, abandonment of hatred and abandonment of delusion, they are the speakers (proclaimers / teachers) of Dhamma in this world.
2. Yathā, mahārāja, kammakāro evaṃ cintayati ‘bhatako ahaṃ imāya nāvāya kammaṃ karomi’ …
yathā = just as, mahārāja = great king, kammakāra = workman, labourer;
cintayati = cinteti = thinks, bhataka = hireling, servant;
imāya = (by / with) this, nāvā = boat
Translation : Just as, O great King, a workman thinks thus – I am a hireling / servant. I carry out my work (job) with this boat …
3. Pamoditā namassanti, pūjayanti naruttamaṃ
pamodita = glad, rejoiced; namassati = honours, pays homage, venerates;
pūjayati = pūjeti = honours, venerates;
uttama = excellent, splendid, highest
Translation : Those / the ones who are glad (rejoicing) pay homage, venerate the excellent (noble) man.
4. Yathā kathaṃ pana tvaṃ, bhikkhu, bhāvesi maraṇassatiṃ?
kathaṃ = how, yathā kathaṃ = how, in what manner;
pana = but, again, and, further; bhāveti = cultivates, develops;
maraṇa = death, sati = mindfulness,
maraṇassati = mindfulness focussed on death
Translation : But bhikkhu, in what manner do you cultivate mindfulness focussed on death? (recollection / contemplation on death)
5. Yo ca mettaṃ bhāvayati appamāṇaṃ paṭissato …
yo = the one who, ca = and, mettā = loving kindness,
bhāvayati = bhāveti = cultivates, develops;
appamāṇa = immeasurable, boundless; paṭissata = mindful
Translation : And (when) a mindful one develops boundless loving kindness …