ā-ending verbal bases (suṇā)
Conjugation of ā-ending verbal base (suṇā)
suṇāti = listens
The salient feature of ā-ending verbal bases : the last vowel ‘ā’ gets shortened into ‘a’ in case of third person plural.
All the ā-ending verbal bases conjugate like ‘suṇā’ (suṇāti) in the Present Tense.
- kiṇāti = sells,
- vikkiṇāti = buys, purchases;
- dadāti = gives
- ādadāti = takes,
- mināti = measures,
- gaṇhāti = takes, catches;
- jānāti = knows, understands;
- jināti = conquers,
- pāpuṇāti = reaches, attains
We will now translate a few sentences containing conjugated forms of ā-ending verbal bases in the Present Tense. These sentences are adopted from the Tipitaka.
1. Upamāyapidhekacce viññū purisā bhāsitassa atthaṃ jānanti.
upamāyapidhekacce = upamāya +(a)pi + idha + ekacce
upamā = simile, example; api = and, moreover;
idha = here, in this place / connection; ekacca = some, certain;
viññū = wise, intelligent; purisa = man, bhāsita = spoken, said, speech;
attha = meaning, sense, significance; jānāti = knows, becomes aware, gains knowledge.
Translation : And here (moreover) some wise men understand the meaning of what is said, through a simile (by an example).
2. So rūpaṃ pajānāti, rūpasamudayaṃ pajānāti, rūpanirodhaṃ pajānāti, rūpanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ pajānāti, rūpassa assādaṃ pajānāti, rūpassa ādinavaṃ pajānāti, rūpassa nissaraṇaṃ pajānāti.
so = he, rūpa = (material) form, pajānāti = knows / understands clearly,
samudaya = arising, origin; rūpasamudaya = arising of form,
nirodha = cessation, rūpanirodha = cessation of form,
gāminī = one that goes, one that leads to;
rūpanirodhagāminī = one that leads to the cessation of form,
paṭipadā = path, assāda = enjoyment, taste;
ādinava = danger, disadvantage, drawback;
nissaraṇa = escape, departure, leaving behind
Translation : He clearly knows / understands – the form, the origin (arising) of form, the cessation of form, the path leading to the cessation of form, the enjoyment of form, the disadvantage (drawback) of form and the departure / escape from form.
3. Saddho upāsako ohitasoto dhammaṃ suṇāti
saddha = one with saddhā, believing, faithful, devoted;
upāsaka = lay devotee / follower,
ohitasota = (one who lends an ear), one who is attentive, intent;
dhamma = teaching, suṇāti = listens
Translation : The devoted lay follower listens to the teaching attentively.
4. So makkaṭo bālajātiko lolajātiko taṃ lepaṃ hatthena gaṇhāti
so = he, that; makkaṭa = monkey, bāla = foolish, jātika = being of, having;
bālajātika = one who is foolish, lola = eager, greedy;
taṃ = that, lepa = coating, a plaster; hattha = hand, gaṇhāti = holds
Translation : That foolish, greedy monkey holds that coating with (its) hand.
5. So odanaṃ paṭiggaṇhāti nātithokaṃ nātibahuṃ.
odana = food, meal; paṭiggaṇhāti = receives, accepts;
nātithokaṃ = na + ati + thokaṃ
na = not, ati = very, over, beyond, excess; thoka = little, insignificant;
nātibahuṃ = na + ati + bahuṃ
bahu = lot, much
Translation : He accepts food - neither a lot, nor very less.
6. So tattha āsavānaṃ khayaṃ pāpuṇāti.
tattha = there, āsava = outflow, intoxicant of mind;
khaya = exhaustion, decay, destruction; pāpuṇāti = reaches, attains
Translation : There he attains the exhaustion of intoxicants of the mind. (attains liberation)