Vocabulary and Translation

Let us learn a few a-ending neuter nouns and some verbs.

  • nagara = town
  • geha = house
  • khetta = farm, field
  • dhana = wealth
  • dhañña = crop, harvest
  • bīja = seed
  • phala = fruit
  • puppha = flower
  • paṇṇa = leaf
  • tiṇa = grass
  • bhaṇḍa = goods, things
  • khīra = milk
  • arañña = forest
  • uyyāna = park
  • āsana = seat, cushion
  • vattha = cloth, garment
  • kasati = ploughs
  • patati = falls
  • vapati = sows, plants
  • khādati = eats
  • saṃharati = collects, gathers
  • kiṇāti = buys, purchases
  • vikkiṇāti = sells
  • tiṭṭhati = stands
  • dhovati = washes
Audio for a-ending neuter nouns 1

Note : Students are encouraged to use any Pali English dictionary or app for looking up meaning of Pali words. We will be using many new words in our Pali sentences and also try to translate a few phrases / sentences from the Suttas. A dictionary will be of great help to understand the meaning of any new word that we come across.

While translating sentences with neuter nouns, a special attention should be given to nominative and accusative forms – similar to phalaṃ (nom. & acc. singular) and phalāni (nom. & acc. plural). Let us understand this with the help of a few examples.

  1. Kumāro phalaṃ khādati.
    The boy eats a fruit.
    Here the fruit being the object of the sentence, ‘phalaṃ’ is accusative singular form.
  2. Rukkasmā phalaṃ patati.
    A fruit falls from a tree.
    In this sentence the action of ‘falling’ is performed by the fruit. Thus, ‘fruit’ is the subject of the sentence and ‘phalaṃ’ is nominative singular form.
  3. Kassakā khettesu bījāni vapanti.
    The farmers sow seeds in the fields.
    ‘The farmers’ are the subject and ‘seeds’ are the object of the sentence. Hence, ‘bījāni’ is accusative plural form.
  4. Bījāni kassakānaṃ dhaññaṃ dadanti.
    The seeds give harvest to the farmers. (The seeds yield harvest for the farmers.)
    In this sentence, ‘the seeds’ is the subject and ‘bījāni’ is nominative plural form.

Note : Analysing each word as to its gender, number and case is not necessary for translating Pali sentences; and with some practice we can translate sentences fairly accurately without such analysis. However, it is always advisable to be thorough with the grammar, as it helps a great deal when we move on to reading and translating the Pali suttas.

Please complete the following activities based on the declension of a-ending neuter nouns.

Last modified: Thursday, 13 June 2024, 8:12 PM