……"And how, Cunda, is one made impure in four ways by verbal action?
There a certain person engages in wrong speech. When he has been called as witness to council, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or a royal court: ‘Come, good man, tell us what you know!’ if he doesn’t know, he says, ‘I know.’ If he does know, he says, ‘I don’t know.’ If he hasn’t seen, he says, ‘I have seen.’ If he has seen, he says, ‘I haven’t seen.’ Thus he deliberately tells lies for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of some gain.
He engages in malicious speech. What he has heard here he tells there in order to divide those people from these people here. Whatever he has heard there he tells here to divide these people from those people there. Thus breaking apart those who are united and stirring up friction between those who have broken apart, he loves discord, finds pleasure in discord, enjoys discord, and speaks things that create discord.
He engages in abusive speech. He speaks words that are insolent, harsh, bitter to others, abusive of others, provoking anger and obstructing concentration.
He engages in idle chatter. He speaks at inappropriate times, speaks what isn’t factual, what isn’t in accordance with the goal, with Dhamma and the Vinaya, he speaks words that are not worth treasuring, his speech is out of place, unreasonable, without purpose, not leading to the goal. This is, Cunda, how one is made impure in four ways by verbal action.” ……
……"And how, Cunda, is one made pure in four ways by verbal action?
There is the case where a certain person, abandoning wrong speech, abstains from wrong speech. When called as witness to a council, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or a royal court: ‘Come, good man, tell us what you know’: If he doesn’t know, he says, ‘I don’t know.’ If he does know, he says, ‘I know.’ If he hasn’t seen, he says, ‘I haven’t seen.’ If he has seen, he says, ‘I have seen.’ Thus he doesn’t consciously tell a lie for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of a little reward.
Abandoning malicious speech he abstains from malicious speech. Having heard something here he does not spread it elsewhere in order to divide these people. Having heard something there he does not spread this, in order not to cause dissension amongst those people here. Thus he reconciles those who have broken up and supports those who are united. He loves and finds pleasure in concord, delights in harmony and utters words that generate harmony.
Abandoning abusive speech he abstains from abusive speech. Whatever speech is polite, is soothing to the ear, is affectionate and moves the heart, is appealing many and pleasing many, such speech he utters.
Abandoning useless talk and gossip he abstains from useless talk and gossip. He speaks at the right time about facts, which are in accordance with the goal, with Dhamma and the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, full of purpose, leading to the goal.
Thus, Cunda, one is made pure in four ways by verbal action!”…….