Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa

2.1.8 Dutiyapaṭipadāsuttaṃ - Why One Ought to Walk the Path Correctly

Catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ, yathābhūtaṃ adassanā;
Saṃsitaṃ1 dīghamaddhānaṃ,2 tāsu tāsveva3 jātisu.
Tāni etāni diṭṭhāni, bhavanetti4 samūhatā;5
Ucchinnaṃ mūlaṃ dukkhassa, natthi dāni punabbhavo’ti.6

By not discerning the Four Noble Truths in their true nature,
Continuous transmigration from birth to birth continued for long.
When these are recognized, jettisoned is the base for new becoming,
With the root of suffering cut off; then there will be no more becoming.


The importance of what exactly is the paṭipadā is repeatedly expressed by the Buddha. So at one time when he was dwelling at the village of Koṭigāmo he addressed the monks.

Catunnaṃ, bhikkhave, ariyasaccānaṃ ananubodhā7 appaṭivedhā8 evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca. Katamesaṃ catunnaṃ?

Bhikkhus, it is through not realising, through not penetrating the Four Noble Truths that this long course of saṃsara has been continued and endured by me as well as by you. What are these four?

Dukkhassa, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca. Dukkhasamudayassa, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca. Dukkhanirodhassa, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca. Dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca.

It is because the Noble Truth of suffering, Bhikkhus, has neither been realised nor penetrated that this long course of saṃsara has been continued and endured by me as well as by you. It is because the Noble Truth of the arising of suffering, Bhikkhus, has neither been realised nor penetrated that this long course of saṃsara has been continued and endured by me as well as by you. It is because the Noble Truth of the eradication of suffering, Bhikkhus, has neither been realized nor penetrated that this long course of saṃsara has been continued and endured by me as well as by you. It is because the path leading to the cessation of suffering, Bhikkhus, has neither been realised nor penetrated that this long course of saṃsara has been continued and endured by me as well as by you.

Tayidaṃ, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, dukkhasamudayaṃ ariyasaccaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ,9 dukkhanirodhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, ucchinnā bhavataṇhā, khīṇā bhavanetti, natthidāni punabbhavo’ti.10

But now, Bhikkhus, that the Noble Truth of suffering has been realised and penetrated, that the Noble Truth of the arising of suffering has been realised and penetrated, that the Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering has been realised and penetrated, that the Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation suffering has been realised and penetrated, cut off is the craving for existence, destroyed is the base of renewed becoming then there is no more becoming.11


The Dutiyapaṭipadāsutta, similar to the previous lesson, offers the Paṭhamapaṭipadāsutta,12 another opportunity to work by adding from memory the constituents of the Ariyo Aṭṭhaṅgiko Maggo, which is nothing but the Forth Noble Truth. It is stirring to see here the Buddha confirms that even if one doesn’t leave the householder’s life one can, in consequence of practising the correct path, attain the wholesome Dhamma.

… sammāpaṭipanno sammāpaṭipattādhikaraṇahetu13 ārādhako hoti ñāyaṃ dhammaṃ kusalaṃ. …

… who is following the correct path can in consequence of practicing the correct path attain the wholesome Dhamma. …14


The Buddha not only explained in great detail the path to liberation but he also issued rules and regulations, as well as respective moderations, according to particular occurrences.  This was done in order to enable the Bhikkhus to follow the holy life in an ideal manner and to gain ample periods for meditation and inner self-observation. He expected them to abide by these rules with deep and proper understanding rather than out of pure faith or anticipation. A thorough grasp of the wholesome benefits derived from upholding these regulations was expected from the practitioners expressed in this valuable formula.

… veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi …

… I solemnly take upon myself to follow the path rule of training to abstain …15

Still, historical accounts provide evidence that changes in the approach towards the ideal of brahmacariya could occur in the Saṅgha. It may have been that the Bhikkhus had fallen away from the practice of meditation when more and more people might have joined the Saṅgha as a means of livelihood. It turned out that only a hundred years after the Buddha’s Parinibbāṇa, in the tenth year of the reign of King Kāḷāsoka, certain Bhikkhus from the Vajji clan from Vesāli started applying and vindicating new preferences, thus demonstrating a rather relaxed turn in the ideal of brahmacariya.

The Vinayapiṭaka16 describes that they claimed the ‘ten points’ (dasa vatthūni) to be lawful. For example, they were fond of storing salt in a horn in order to make food more tasty (siṅgīloṇakappa);17 they took meals even after midday (dvaṅgulakappa); they ate at another time or again at another village (gāmantarakappa); they had separate dwellings from other Bhikkhus (āvāsakappa); they were also found acting on another’s behalf without prior consent (anumatākappa); they performed different practices by following their respective preceptor (āciṇṇakappa); they started drinking unchurned milk after meals (amathitakappa) and even fermented palm wine (jalogikappa); some were sitting on different sized mats (nisīdanaṃ adasakaṃ), and accepting gold and silver (jātarūpārajataṃ). To this the Mahāvaṃsapāḷi refers in the following way:

Atīte dasame vasse, kāḷāsokassa rājino;
sambuddhaparinibbānā, evaṃ vassasataṃ18 ahu.
Tadā vesāliyā bhikkhū, anekā vajjiputtakā;
siṅgīloṇaṃ dvaṅgulañca, tathā gāmantarammi ca.
 Āvāsānumatāciṇṇaṃ, amathitaṃ jalogi ca;
nisīdanaṃ adasakaṃ, jātarūpādikaṃ iti.19


It was the Arahant Thera Yasa, who was wandering through the Vajji region, who observed the actions mentioned above. He decided to reproach a group of Vajjian monks when he found that they openly asked their lay devotees on an Uposatha day20 to bestow coins in the vessel for requisites.21

… taṃ sutvāna yasatthero, evaṃ vajjīsu cārikaṃ.
Chaḷabhiñño balappatto,22 taṃ sametuṃ sa-ussāho,23 
ṭhapetvāposathagge24 te, kaṃsapātiṃ sahodhakaṃ;
kahāpaṇādiṃ25 saṅghassa, dethanāhu upāsake. … 26

In spite of his explanation and criticism that this was not in line with the regulations and had nothing to do with Uposatha, those monks were strongly attached to their habits and allowances. They did not listen to him at all and even drove him away. Consequently, Thera Yasa first visited Thera Sambhūta to ask for his advice. Sixty forest-dwelling monks from Pāvā and eighty monks from the southern regions of Avanti who were all without impurity and of the same determination to resolve this matter, met at Ahogaṅga with others from different regions. All (it is said ninety thousand – navutisahassāni) offered to help Thera Yasa to settle the corruption of these rules.

... Pāveyyakā saṭṭhitherā, asitāvantikāpi27 ca;
mahākhīṇāsavā sabbe, ahogaṅgamhi otaruṃ. 
Bhikkhavo sannipatitā, sabbe tattha tato tato;
āsuṃ navutisahassāni, mantetvā akhilāpi te. 
Soreyya revatattheraṃ, bahussuta manāsavaṃ;
taṃ kālapamukhaṃ28 ñatvā, passituṃ nikkhamiṃsu taṃ. ...

Together they decided to consult the Venerable Revata in Soreyya as he was the foremost monk, well-learned and free from any impurities. As soon as the Vajjian monks came to know this they even tried to bribe him with an ample set of requisites, but were not successful so they likewise tried to induce his attendant, Uttara. Still unsuccessful, they finally even went to the ‘City of Flowers’ (pupphapura) and tried to entice the King Kāḷāsoka29 by accusing those monks from the country. They spread the information to the King that those monks were about to try to dissuade the local Vajjian monks from the true path by desiring to possess the Gandhakuṭi and Mahāvana-monastry.30 King Kāḷāsoka, who took their side, was then was approached by his sister, Therī Nandā, a highly developed Bhikkhuni. She stipulated him to rectify his grave mistake and to take the correct side, to reconcile the Bhikkhus and to protect the teaching.

... bhaginī nandatherī tu, ākāsena anāsavā. 
bhāriyaṃ31 te kataṃ kammaṃ, dhammike’yye khamāpaya;
pakkho32 tesaṃ bhavitvā tvaṃ, kuru33 sāsanapaggahaṃ.34 ...

The king then agreed to ask them to settle the matter by determining the correct view. Thus, under King Kāḷāsoka’s patronage, the Second Council was inaugurated. After various fruitless discussions by the full assembly,

… saṅgho sannipatī tadā; anaggāni35 tattha bhassāni …

the Venerable Thera Revata decided on a ubbāhika, the format of settling a dispute by carefully selected senior, fully-enlightened Bhikkhus.

... Tato so revatatthero, sāvetvā saṅghamajjhago;
ubbhāhikāya taṃ vatthuṃ, sametuṃ nicchayaṃ36 akā.37 ...

Under the guidance of Venerable Revata, the selected eight Bhikkhus (the Venerables Sabbakāmi, Saḷha, Khujjasobhita and Vāsabhagāmika from the East and the Venerables Revata, Sambhuta-Sāṇavāsī, Yasa and Sumana from Pāva) went to the remote and silent Vāḷikārāma.

… pācinakeca caturo, caturo pāveyyakepi ca;
ubbhāhikāya sammanni, bhikkhū taṃ vatthu santiyā.
Sabbakāmī ca sāḷho ca, khujjasobhitanāmako;
vāsabhagāmiko cāti, thero pācinakā ime.
Revato sāṇasambhūto, yaso kākoṇḍakatrajo;
sumano cāti cattāro, therā pāveyyakā ime.
Sametuṃ tāni vatthūni, appasaddaṃ anākulaṃ;
agamuṃ vālukārāmaṃ, aṭṭhattherā anāsavā. ...


The Venerable Revata took it upon himself to ask the questions about the ten offenses and Thera Sabbjakāmi, the most senior of the Elders of that day, replied on all matters and decided that all ten points held lawful by the Vajjian monks were not in line with the teaching.

… sabbāni tāni vatthūni, na kappantīti38 suttato. ...

The verdict of these Theras was announced to the assembly and afterwards the Venerable Thera Revata selected seven hundred Bhikkhus to re-establish the procedure of the first Saṅgīti by reciting the Dhamma and Vinaya.

… Tato so revatatthero, saddhammaṭṭhitiyā ciraṃ;
kāretuṃ dhammasaṅgītiṃ, sabbabhikkhusamūhato.
Pabhinnatthādiñāṇānaṃ, piṭakattayadhārinaṃ;
satāni sattabhikkhūnaṃ, arahantānamuccini. …

This historic second council lasted eight months and came to be known as the Yasattherasangīti because of the major role the Elder Yasa played in it and his zeal for safeguarding the Vinaya. Though it is also known as the Sattasatīsaṅgīti, because of the seven hundred Elders who participated.39

After the termination of the council the first serious schism in the Saṅgha occurred, because the Vajjian monks categorically refused to accept the Council’s decision. In disobedience they initiated a conference of their own which they called the Mahāsaṅgiti. These monks also took upon themselves to develop their own interpretation of the teaching and decided to call themselves the Mahāsaṅgitas.40 Thus the first split of the Saṅgha occurred only one hundred years after the Enlightened One passed away.

1. saṃsita: saṃsarati: (pp.) transmigrate, move about continuously.

2. dīghamaddhānaṃ: dīghaṃ + addhānaṃ — long + period, time, lasting, continuing.

3. tāsu: (loc. pl.) — these.

4. bhavanetti: desire for existence, becoming.

5. samūhatā: samūhanti (pp.) — remove, abolish.

6. Ariyasaccakathā, Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ, Dīghanikāyo.

7. ananubodhā: an + anu + bodhā: bujjhati/bodhati (pp.) — not + realise, perceive, understand.

8. appaṭivedhā: a + p + paṭivedhā — not + comprehension, penetration.

9. paṭividdhaṃ: paṭivijjhati: (pp.) penetrated, acquired, comprehended.

10. Ariyasaccakathā, Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ, Dīghanikāyo.

11. The Four Noble Truths will be explained in more detail in chapter 3.2 Sammādiṭṭhi – Right View. One may refer to 3.2.2 Vibhaṅgasuttaṃ-2 – What is Right View? and especially 3.2.3 Dhammacakkappavattanasuttaṃ-2 – The Four Noble Truths Have to Be Fully Realized.

12. See 2.1.7: Paṭhamapaṭipadāsuttaṃ - How to Walk the Path Correctly.

13. sammāpaṭipattādhikaraṇahetu: sammā + paṭipatti + adhikaraṇa + hetu — correct + practice + in consequence + reason.

14. At one occasion the Venerable Ānanda had asked the Buddha about the states of deliverance of various householders having passed away. Even so the Buddha admonished Ānanda that he was not ready to reply to the same question in future about every one’s destination after passing away, here he confirmed that next to various layperson like Sujātā, Kukkuṭo, Kāḷimbo and others more than five hundred laymen who had passed away in Nātika, had destroyed the three or even five lower fetters and were bound for reach enlightenment: … Sātirekāni, ānanda, pañcasatāni nātike upāsakā kālaṅkatā, tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā. …

Anāvattidhammasambodhiparāyaṇā, Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ, Dīghanikāyo.

15. The chosen wording provides a different attitude, volition and perception than the directive used in the commandments: “Thou shalt not!” For more details on this formula and ethical principles derived from it see the lessons of chapter 3.4 Sammāvācā - Right Speech, 3.5 Sammākammanto - Right Actions and 3.6 Sammā-ājīvo - Right Livelihood.

16. … Tena kho pana samayena vassasataparinibbute bhagavati vesālikā vajjiputtakā bhikkhū vesāliyaṃ dasa vatthūni dīpenti – kappati siṅgiloṇakappo, kappati dvaṅgulakappo, kappati gāmantarakappo, kappati āvāsakappo, kappati anumatikappo, kappati āciṇṇakappo, kappati amathitakappo, kappati jaḷogiṃ pātuṃ, kappati adasakaṃ nisīdanaṃ, kappati jātarūparajatanti. … Paṭhamabhāṇavāro, Sattasatikakkhandhakaṃ, Cūḷavaggapāḷi, Vinayapiṭake.

17. kappa: is here to be understood in respect to: rituals, rule, practice, habits.

18. vassasataṃ: vassa + sataṃ — year + hundred: century.

19. Paṭhamadhammasaṃgīti, Catuttha pariccheda, Mahāvaṃsapāḷi.

20. On Uposatha see 1.4.7: Ānāpānassatisuttaṃ, part one – Free from Prattle and Chatter is this Assembly.

21.… vesālike upāsake evaṃ vadanti – ‘‘dethāvuso, saṅghassa kahāpaṇampi aḍḍhampi pādampi māsakarūpampi. Bhavissati saṅghassa parikkhārena karaṇīya’’nti.

22. The qualification of an Arahant here refers to the Venerable Yasa: chaḷabhiñño balappatto: cha + + abhiñño + bala + p + patto: six + supernormal powers + strength + having attained. They are: iddhi vidha, dibba sota, parassa cetopariyañāna, pubbenivāsānussati, dibbacakkhu, āsavakkhaya: having the power of iddhi, possessing divine seeing, divine hearing, understanding the thoughts of others, knowing the past of beings and having abandoned all impurities–āsava. Compare the epithet of the Tathāgata: ‘The One of Ten Powers’ (dasabalassa), footnote at 2.1.7 Paṭhamapaṭipadāsuttaṃ - How to Walk the Path Correctly.

23. sa-ussāho: with the endeavour, effort.

24. ṭhapetvāposathagge: ṭhapetva + uposatha + agge — having placed + on the Uposatha + hall.

25. kahāpaṇā: the coins of those days.

26. Dutiyasaṃgīti, Mahāvaṃsapāḷi.

27. asitāvantikāpi: asita + avantika + api — eighty + Avanti + and.

28. kālapamukha: kāla + pamukha: time + foremost, chief.

29. King Kāḷāsoka, was the son of Susunāga and was king of Magadha for twenty-eight years. The tenth year of his reign completed one hundred years from the date of the Buddha's death. He is at times mistaken as King Asoka (Dhammāsoka) of Magadha who was the son of Bindusāra (father of Dhammāsoka) and reigned about 120 years later during 273 to 223 BC. (see 2.1.9).

30. ‘Vesāliṃ te tato gantvā, tato pupphapuraṃ gatā; ‘vadiṃsukāḷāsokassa, narindassa alajjīno.Satthussa no gandhakuṭiṃ, gopayanto mayaṃ tahiṃ;  mahāvanavihārasmiṃ, vasāma vajjībhūmiyaṃ. Gaṇhissāma vihāranti, gāmavāsikasikkhavo; gacchanti mahārāja, maṭisedhaya te iti.’ …

31. bhāriyaṃ: serious, grave.

32. pakkho: part, fraction, associated, ‘under somebody’s wing’.

33. kuru: rare medium form of karoti.

34. sāsanapaggaha: sāsana + paggaha — sāsana + giving patronage, support.

35. anaggāni: an + aggāni — without goal, aimless, fruitless.

36. nicchaya: resolution, determination.

37. akā: karoti (aor.) — he did.

38. kappa: suitable, proper, fitting.

39. Around 386 BC.

40. The intention of presenting this short historical account is to express gratitude by providing a summary of those advantageous events that took place and the efforts that were undertaken to maintain the Buddha’s teaching. It lies not within the scope of ETP to go into details of all research that was carried out. But it must be mentioned that later research puts the accuracy of the accounts, as described in the Pāli sources, into question. When the different Vinayas are compared it can be shown that, for example, the Vinaya of the Mahāsaṅgitas contains lesser rules than that of the Theravādins, which seem to have added more especially concerning training (sekhiyā), but otherwise both Vinayas contain more or less the same regulations. In regards to the dasa vatthūni, the ‘ten points’, both versions seem in agreement that these are offenses. Thus it seems that the separation of the Mahāsaṅgitas from the Theravādins may have occurred at a later stage. It appears that geographical migration of the different groups — settlement in monasteries in different areas with specific regulations and a general focus more on theory than on practise — were the main sources of the splits. For the continuation further, see also 2.1.11 Paṭhamabrahmaññasuttaṃ & Dutiyabrahmaññasuttaṃ - About Being a Brahmañña and the Fruits thereof & The Purpose of Being a Brahmañña.

Last modified: Sunday, 3 December 2023, 10:30 AM