Vocabulary and Translation
Vocabulary and translation
Let us learn some more a-ending masculine nouns and translate a few Pali words into English.
Similar to ‘buddha’, ‘dhamma’ and ‘saṅgha’ are also a-ending masculine nouns.
Some commonly occurring a-ending masculine nouns are :
- purisa = man
- kumāra = boy
- dārakā = young boy, child
- putta = son
- vāṇija = merchant
- brāhmaṇa = brahmin
- ratha = chariot
- vihāra = monastery
- upāsaka = lay devotee
- ācariya = teacher
- hattha = hand
- patta = bowl
- magga = path, road
- yācaka = beggar
- rukkha = tree
All the above nouns decline like the word ‘buddha’.
Please note : As the nominative singular form of these words end in ‘o’ (buddho), some old Pali grammar books mention this group of nouns as ‘o’-ending masculine nouns. However, we will call them as ‘a’-ending based on the original word / stem – Buddha, purisa, dhamma and so on.
Let us now translate a few declined forms of the above words.
yācaka = beggar
The termination added to the word ‘yācaka’ is ssa which occurs in the dative and genitive singular.
Thus yācakassa = to / for the beggar (dative singular), or
= of the beggar / beggar’s (genitive singular)
ācariya = teacher. The termination ‘o’ denotes nominative singular case.
Thus ācariyo = a / the teacher
hattha = hand. The termination ‘ehi’ is added in instrumental and ablative plural.
Thus, hatthehi = by / with / through the hands (instrumental)
= from the hands (ablative)
Please revise the declension table and translation of cases based on the following activities.
Here are some more important a-ending masculine nouns that we will come across frequently in the suttas :
- khandha = aggregate
- kāya = body
- rāga = greed
- dosa = hatred
- moha = delusion
- saṅkhāra = volitional formation
- deva = deity
- gāma = village
- dīpa = island, lamp