Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa
Introduction to 3.7.9 Ānāpānassatisutta - Satta Bojjhaṅge –
Perfecting the seven Factors of Enlightenment
“Tathāgatassa buddhassa, sabbabhūtānukampino;
Pariyāyavacanaṃ passa, dve ca dhammā pakāsitā.
Tato virattacittāse, dukkhassantaṃ karissathā’’ti.
“Through his instruction, the Buddha - the Tathāgata-,
Out of compassion for all beings made know these two Dhammas:
Realize evil as what it is and free yourself from it,
On base of such a mind free of restraint - liberate yourself from suffering.”
The previous lesson dealt with the five hindrances–pañca nīvaraṇāni, their condition, what causes them to arise and the nutriments that sustains them. In the Saṅgāravasutta quoted in the respective introduction the Buddha pointed to the satta bojjhaṅgā. He emphasised to Saṅgārava that these factors of enlightenment need to be fully developed in order to free the mind completely from all hindrances, obstructions and corruptions. While the hindrances produce darkness, cause lack of vison and knowledge, are detrimental to wisdom, produce irritation and lead in the opposite direction of enlightenment the satta bojjhaṅgā function as a remedy:
‘‘Sattime, brāhmaṇa, bojjhaṅgā anāvaraṇā anīvaraṇā cetaso anupakkilesā bhāvitā bahulīkatā vijjāvimuttiphalasacchikiriyāya saṃvattanti. Katame satta? Satisambojjhaṅgo kho, brāhmaṇa, anāvaraṇo anīvaraṇo cetaso anupakkileso bhāvito bahulīkato vijjāvimuttiphalasacchikiriyāya saṃvattati… dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ …pe… vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ …pe… pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ …pe… passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ …pe… samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ …pe… upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo kho, brāhmaṇa, anāvaraṇo anīvaraṇo cetaso anupakkileso bhāvito bahulīkato vijjāvimuttiphalasacchikiriyāya saṃvattati. Ime kho, brāhmaṇa, satta bojjhaṅgā anāvaraṇā anīvaraṇā cetaso anupakkilesā bhāvitā bahulīkatā vijjāvimuttiphalasacchikiriyāya saṃvattantī’’ti.
“Brāhmiṇ, there are seven factors of enlightenment that are not shutting off the mind, not obstructing nor corrupting the mind and when perfected and developed to full growth lead to the fruit of realization of knowledge and liberation. What are the seven? These are the factor of enlightenment of awareness, of mindfulness, which is not shutting off the mind, neither obstructing nor corrupting the mind and when perfected and developed to full growth leads to the fruit of realization of knowledge and liberation; further the factor of enlightenment of analytical understanding of the Dhamma, …… the factor of enlightenment of bliss, …… the factor of enlightenment of tranquillity, …… the factor of enlightenment of concentration and the factor of enlightenment of equanimity that are not shutting off the mind, not obstructing nor corrupting the mind and when perfected and developed to full growth lead to the fruit of realization of knowledge and liberation.”
It is the act of forsaking the condition and the nutriment for all hindrances which supports the development of these satta bojjhaṅgā. For a meditator, in the same way as he is able to reduce attention towards any object that may foster the pañca nīvaraṇāni - especially in the mental theater - the factors of enlightenment, the limbs of enlightenment get strengthened. As the Buddha points out, abandoning and getting rid of hindrances leads to the fruition of the realization of true knowledge and liberation–vijjāvimuttiphalasacchikiriyāya. While the pañca nīvaraṇāni can be vanquished individually by abandoning ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro the satta bojjhaṅgā are bolstered by a gradual and systematic step-by-step-training through the development of yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro. Each factor needs to be strengthened in itself but all links, all limbs–aṅgā– are interrelated, depend on each other, find support and are based in one another. One reinforces the other.
… ‘‘Bodhāya saṃvattantīti kho, bhikkhu, tasmā ‘bojjhaṅgā’ti vuccanti. Idha, bhikkhu, satisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ, dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ; vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ; pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ; passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ, vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ; samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ; upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ. Tassime satta bojjhaṅge bhāvayato kāmāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati. Vimuttasmiṃ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ hoti. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti pajānāti. Bodhāya saṃvattantīti, bhikkhu, tasmā ‘bojjhaṅgā’ti vuccantī’’ti
… “Because they lead to enlightenment – that is why they are called factors of enlightenment. Here a Bhikkhu develops the factor of enlightenment of awareness dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion, dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment. He develops the factor of enlightenment of investigation of Dhamma dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion, dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment. He develops the factor of enlightenment of effort dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion, dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment. He develops the factor of enlightenment of rapture dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion, dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment. He develops the factor of enlightenment of tranquillity dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion, dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment. He develops the factor of enlightenment of concentration dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion, dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment. He develops the factor of enlightenment of equanimity dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion, dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment. When developing these factors of enlightenment the mind gets released from the taint of sensual desires, the mind gets released from the taints of existence and the mind gets released from the taint of ignorance. Thus liberated knowledge arises: ‘It is liberated.’ He realises: ‘There is no more birth, lived is the holy life, done is what had to be done, there is no more left for this existence.’ They lead to enlightenment – that is why they are called factors of enlightenment.”
Interpreting this reasoning it becomes clear that what are commonly translated as factors of enlightenment are factors that literally lead to enlightenment. That is why the Buddha gave so much emphasis on the process of development of bhāvanāppadhāna. But how are the factors of enlightenment cherished, cultivated and nurtured, how do they lead to enlightenment?
Various texts, especially found in the Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Mahāvaggo of Saṃyutta Nikāya highlight the condition, nutriment and sustenance that support, foster, strengthen and help to develop, cultivate and bring to fulfilment–bhāvito bahulīkato the satta bojjhaṅgā. After abandoning ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro here the task at hand now is repeatedly giving proper attention–yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro to the factors and their respective objects that foster each of the limbs of enlightenment in their specific ways:
‘‘Ko ca, bhikkhave, āhāro anuppannassa vā satisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā satisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūriyā? Atthi, bhikkhave, satisambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyā dhammā. Tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro – ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā satisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā satisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūriyā.”
“And what, Bhikkhus, is the nutriment for the unarisen satisambojjhaṅga to arise and for the development of the arisen satisambojjhaṅga to being accomplished? These are the factors on which the satisambojjhaṅga is based. Giving repeatedly proper attention to them is the nutriment for the unarisen satisambojjhaṅga to arise and for the development of the arisen satisambojjhaṅga to being accomplished.”
Likewise, the Buddha explains how the remaining six other factors get cultivated through the enhancement of their condition:
Likewise to those strong benefactors for one who tries to master the hindrances the ardent follower of the path will also find significant backing if he embraces certain factors for each bojjhaṅgā:
While the previous quotes from the Kāyasutta accentuate the nutriment for each of the sambojjhaṅgā, the Sīlasutta highlights the necessary interrelation and reciprocal reinforcement. Relying on a strong base of the previously developed factor the respective next limb of enlightenment comes to arise and gets developed. However, sati is the necessary base and compulsory prerequisite on which all development is based, compared with salt that is desirable in all dishes:
“Resilient sati needs to be established everywhere. Because sati protects the mind from getting agitated by means of faith, energy and wisdom which has the inherent tendency towards agitation, and sati protects the mind from getting indolent by means of concentration which has the inherent tendency towards sloth.
… Why is this so? Because the mind has sati as its refuge, sati provides protection for the mind and without sati there will be no exertion and no restraint of the mind."
This emphasis gets verified with the selected Pāli reference in the current Ānāpānassatisutta. It commences with the emphasis that the full development and fulfilment of the enlightenment factor of sati has to be accomplished fourfold in order to provide a proper prerequisite and base for the development and fulfilment of the other six factors that lead to enlightenment: To realize kāye kāyānupassī; vedanāsu vedanānupassī; citte cittānupassī and dhammesu dhammānupassī it is necessary to achieve proper awareness and mindfulness towards all physical and mental spheres. The Ānāpānassatisutta concludes by summarizing that the full development of sati through the four satipaṭṭhānā safeguards further support for the seven factors of enlightenment that lead to deliverance through final knowledge:
‘Ānāpānassati, bhikkhave, bhāvitā bahulīkatā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā. Ānāpānassati, bhikkhave, bhāvitā bahulīkatā cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripūreti. Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satta bojjhaṅge paripūrenti. Satta bojjhaṅgā bhāvitā bahulīkatā vijjāvimuttiṃ paripūrenti.’
‘Ānāpānassati, Bhikkhus, if developed and fully cultivated bears enourmous fruits, it is of great benefit. Bhikkhus, when ānāpānassati is developed and fully cultivated the four satipaṭṭhānā get fulfilled. Bhikkhus, when the four satipaṭṭhānā are developed and fully cultivated the seven bojjhaṅgā get fulfilled. And, Bhikkhus, with the seven bojjhaṅgā are developed and thus fully cultivated final knowledge comes to fulfilment.’
Even so the next chapter will deal with sati as the constituent of the Eightfold Noble Path in more detail. It needs to be mentioned here that sati can only reach fulfilment when awareness, reinforced by ongoing fervor of feeling sensations in its entireness–ātāpī sampajāno gets accomplished and thus provides the neccessary base for a basic understanding of impermanence to manifest: Yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ, upaṭṭhitāssa tasmiṃ samaye sati hoti asammuṭṭhā.
It may be of interest to look at another similar process of how the seven factors of enlightenment can be strengthened as described in the Sīlasutta. It describes how a Bhikkhu dwells withdrawn by body and mind from all worldly enjoyments and distractions recollecting Dhamma and thus arouses the factor of enlightenment of sati. He develops the arisen satisambojjhaṅgo and thus brings it to fulfilment. Dwelling thus mindful and fully aware, ardent and with thorough understanding on the level of feeling the sensations–sampajāno is the prerequisite for the next factor to arise and getting developed: dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo. Thus developing it - fulfilment gets achieved!
In this way the work of ‘baring off’ all hindrances and observing what is happening in one’s mind and body on the level of sensations, realizing their arising and passing, analysing on a deeper level the impermanent nature of sensations and likewise of mental contents without distraction requires the next factor–āraddho vīriyasambojjhaṅgo to be present! Here this next factor arises, one works on its development and it reaches fulfilment.
When, with such resolved and unshakable energy one observes, analyzes and realises the natural phenomenon within oneself unremittingly, a feeling of delight, bliss and even ‘spiritual’ rapture arises: pītisambojjhaṅgo. One proceeds further by overcoming the trap of relishing or liking this state while maintaining neutral objective observation and continues with resolved energy. One does so by remaining aloof towards all mental and physical occurrences fully aware with constant thorough understanding–ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Here deep tranquility, quietude, mental and physical calm are bound to arise: passaddhisambojjhaṅgo. As this enlightenment factor of tranquillity gets developed and while getting enlarged and expanded it reaches fulfilment. And on base of this, the next factor appears: samādhisambojjhaṅgo.
While this factor of deep concentration gets developed on the base of a calm, tranquil mind, the seventh factor: upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo evolves . It becomes perfect and can not be shaken by whatever experience manifests. Whether pleasant, unpleasant or neutral, wholesome, unwholesome or unspecified states appear and the developed understanding of anicca gets further strengthened. Upekkhāsa gets further developed and the state of bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati accomplished.
These factors leading to enlightenment need to be practised, strengthened, developed and brought to fulfilment. For a meditator the process of working with and on these factors gets obvious when he follows the guidance provided in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasutta in the paragraph of dhammānupassanā bojjhaṅgapabbaṃ. Regarding every single factor the meditator has to maintain full awareness and knowledge that each of these factors is present in him–santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ …sambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ …sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti; he understands properly that at certain times it is absent in him–asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ …sambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ …sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti; he realises that the factor that has not yet arisen comes to arise–yathā ca anuppannassa …sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti and he understands properly how each arisen factor gets strengthened, developed and perfected–yathā ca uppannassa …sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti tañca pajānāti.
For a meditator who works arduously and remains diligent in this way it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate these seven factors that lead to enlightenment: Appamattassetaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṃ – satta bojjhaṅge bhāvessati, satta bojjhaṅge bahulīkarissati.
When all these factors are cultivated and perfected the Buddha guaranties that one of the seven results and fruits can be expected: Final knowledge early in this very life; at the time of death; realisation of nibbāna after death in the intermediate state; at the moment of reappearance; one becomes anāgāmi by destroying the five lower fetters without exertion; one becomes anāgāmi by destroying the five lower fetters with exertion or one reaches nibbāna after having passed into the sphere of the akaniṭṭha field.
 Desanāsuttaṃ, Dutiyavaggo, Dukanipāto, Itivuttakapāḷi
 See 3.7.8 Nīvaraṇapabbaṃ – Mastering the Hindrances
 Pañcime, bhikkhave, nīvaraṇā andhakaraṇā acakkhukaraṇā aññāṇakaraṇā paññānirodhikā vighātapakkhiyā anibbānasaṃvattanikā. Nīvaraṇasuttaṃ, Nīvaraṇavaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Maggasaṃyuttaṃ, Saṃyuttanikāyo
 anāvaraṇā: an + āvaraṇā: not + obstacle, bar, shutting off
 vijjāvimuttiphalasacchikiriyāya: vijjā + vimutti + phala + sacchikiriyāya: knowledge + liberation + fruit + realisation
 See for example Kāyasuttaṃ, Pabbatavaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Maggasaṃyuttaṃ, Saṃyuttanikāyo referred to in the previous lesson. Compare also the Āhārasuttaṃ, Sākacchavaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Maggasaṃyuttaṃ, Saṃyuttanikāyo and especially various texts under the Nīvaraṇavaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Maggasaṃyuttaṃ
 Compare note on ayonisomanasikāroti in the previous lesson. Yonisomanasikāroti is repeatedly giving proper attention that is in line with the path: Tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāroti tattha upāyamanasikārassa punappunaṃ karaṇaṃ.
 Bhikkhusuttaṃ, Pabbatavaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Maggasaṃyuttaṃ, Saṃyuttanikāyo
 Sāvatthinidānaṃ. Atha kho aññataro bhikkhu yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami…pe… ekamantaṃ nisinno kho so bhikkhu bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘‘bojjhaṅgā, bojjhaṅgā’ti, bhante, vuccanti. Kittāvatā nu kho, bhante, ‘bojjhaṅgā’ti vuccantī’’ti?
 The same explanation is given by the Buddha at: Bodhāyasuttaṃ, Udāyivaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Maggasaṃyuttaṃ, Saṃyuttanikāyo
 Compare 3.7.3: Saṃvarasuttaṃ; paragraph on bhāvanāppadhānaṃ
 satisambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyā dhammā: sati + sambojjhaṅga + ṭ + ṭhānīyā + dhammā: sati + factor of enlightenment + based upon things, factors.
These are the things on which sati is based, which foster sati like the thirty two bodhipakkhiyā dhammā and the nine lokuttara dhammā: Satisambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyā dhammāti satiyā ārammaṇadhammā sattatiṃsa bodhipakkhiyā ca nava lokuttaradhammā ca.
 Developing the understanding of the respective positive and painful results of what needs to get realised as wholesome and unwholesome, the first to be praised, the second to be blamed: kusalāti kosallasambhūtā anavajjasukhavipākā. Akusalāti akosallasambhūtā sāvajjadukkhavipākā.
In the Sallekha Sutta, Mūlapariyāyavaggo, Mūlapaṇṇāsapāḷi the Buddha addresses Māha Cunda and explains the vast field of how – based on meditation – one should train oneself to perceive, avoid and erase what is unwholesome – independently of what others do – and train oneself in the wholesome: ……‘‘Idha kho pana vo, cunda, sallekho karaṇīyo. ‘Pare vihiṃsakā bhavissanti, mayamettha avihiṃsakā bhavissāmā’ti sallekho karaṇīyo. ‘Pare pāṇātipātī bhavissanti, mayamettha pāṇātipātā paṭiviratā bhavissāmā’ti sallekho karaṇīyo. ‘Pare adinnādāyī bhavissanti, mayamettha adinnādānā paṭiviratā bhavissāmā’ti sallekho karaṇīyo. ‘Pare abrahmacārī bhavissanti, mayamettha brahmacārī bhavissāmā’ti sallekho karaṇīyo. ‘Pare musāvādī bhavissanti, mayamettha musāvādā paṭiviratā bhavissāmā’ti sallekho karaṇīyo……”.
 Pītisambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyāti pītiyā ārammaṇadhammā
 Kāyapassaddhīti tiṇṇaṃ khandhānaṃ darathapassaddhi. Cittapassaddhīti viññāṇakkhandhassa darathapassaddhi.
 samathanimittaṃ abyagganimittaṃ: samatha + nimittaṃ + abyagga + nimittaṃ: quietude + sign + tiger + sign. Samathanimittanti samathopi samathanimittaṃ, ārammaṇampi. Abyagganimittanti tasseva vevacanaṃ.(tiger here is used as a synonym)
 Upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṭṭhānīyāti upekkhāya ārammaṇadhammā, atthato pana majjhattākāro upekkhāṭṭhānīyā dhammoti veditabbo. Evamettha satidhammavicayaupekkhāsambojjhaṅgā ārammaṇena kathitā, sesā ārammaṇenapi upanissayenapi.
 see previous lesson: 3.7.8 Nīvaraṇapabbaṃ – Mastering the Hindrances
 Cattāro dhammā satisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti satisampajaññaṃ muṭṭhassatipuggalaparivajjanatā upaṭṭhitassatipuggalasevanatā tadadhimuttatāti. Here and the following see: Āhārasuttavaṇṇanā, Sākacchavaggo. Also Bojjhaṅgapabbavaṇṇanā, Mūlapariyāyavaggo. The Pathavīkasiṇaniddeso, Visuddhimaggo likewise dwells in full details on these supporting factors.
 Vatthuvisadakiriyāti ajjhattikabāhirānaṃ vatthūnaṃ visadabhāvakaraṇaṃ: Personal cleanliness – internal and external – starting from cleanliness of nails and hairs, a neat body and tidy surrounding enable one to develop the factor of dhammavicaya. Knowledge should get developed on pure grounds and under clean conditions to get developed genuine. The commentaries summarize the need for hygiene regarding all external appearance, avoidance of smelly perspiration; likewise the request for tidiness of impersonal or external objects like worn out, dirty or malodorous clothes and soiled, untidy house etc. All the necessary activities like regular hair and nail-cutting, bathing and washing have to be performed at suitable periods in the same way as washing clothes, cleaning floor, house etc. The Visuddhimaggo compares knowledge derived on base of dirty internal and external atmosphere with a lamp that cannot burn properly when the lamp-container, wick and oil are soiled, while purified wisdom springs forth on a clean base like the light burns forth when the above constituents are unsoiled and clean.
 indriyasamattapaṭipādanā: translated here as–cultivating consistency of balance in the five controlling faculties–means that sameness and evenness of all five indriya should allow likewise all other factors to function properly. If saddha is strong and others weak, it is problematic to develop vīriya. An example of unbalanced vīriya is provided in the next lesson: 3.7.9 Soṇakoḷivisavatthu
 Satta dhammā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti – paripucchakatā vatthuvisadakiriyā indriyasamattapaṭipādanā duppaññapuggalaparivajjanā paññavantapuggalasevanā gambhīrañāṇacariyapaccavekkhaṇā tadadhimuttatāti.
 Interestingly the Visuddhimaggo mentions slightly different ‘supporters’ here, one is: …removing stiffness and torpor by attention to perception of light, changing the postures, frequenting the open air, etc.,…: ālokasaññāmanasikārairiyāpathaparivattanaabbhokāsasevanādīhi thinamiddhavinodanatā
 Ekādasa dhammā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti – apāyabhayapaccavekkhaṇatā, ānisaṃsadassāvitā, gamanavīthipaccavekkhaṇatā, piṇḍapātāpacāyanatā, dāyajjamahattapaccavekkhaṇatā, satthumahattapaccavekkhaṇatā, jātimahattapaccavekkhaṇatā, sabrahmacārimahattapaccavekkhaṇatā, kusītapuggalaparivajjanatā, āraddhavīriyapuggalasevanatā, tadadhimuttatāti.
 Ekādasa dhammā pītisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti – buddhānussati dhammo, saṅgho, sīlaṃ, cāgo, devatānussati, upasamānussati, lūkhapuggalaparivajjanatā, siniddhapuggalasevanatā, pasādanīyasuttantapaccavekkhaṇatā, tadadhimuttatāti.
 paṇītabhojanasevanatā: translated here as healthy food, suitable food in the sense that different food may be suitable to different characters: Bhojanaṃ pana kassaci madhuraṃ, kassaci ambilaṃ sappāyaṃ hoti.
 utusukhasevanatā: Utupi kassaci sīto, kassaci uṇho sappāyo hoti.
Likewise to food different climates may suit different people – so not only food but also the climate should suit one’s character. One needs to feel comfortable and as a result one can concentrate properly to develop wisdom: Tasmā yaṃ bhojanaṃ vā utuṃ vā sevantassa phāsu hoti, asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ samādhiyati, samāhitaṃ vā thirataraṃ hoti, taṃ bhojanaṃ so ca utu sappāyo. Itaraṃ bhojanaṃ itaro ca utu asappāyo.
 Again different postures may suit at different times. So the right posture has to be found for keeping up a concentrated mind at respective times: … yasmiṃ iriyāpathe asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ samādhiyati, samāhitaṃ vā thirataraṃ hoti, so sappāyo. Itaro asappāyoti veditabbo.
 Majjhattapayogo vuccati attano ca parassa ca kammassakatāpaccavekkhaṇā. Neutral judgment: Reflection on one's own deed as one's own property and another's deed as that of other's property. The lovely verse from Pupphavaggo, Dhammapada highlights the essence here: Na paresaṃ vilomāni, na paresaṃ katākataṃ; attanova avekkheyya, katāni akatāni ca: Not should one be looking after others, what they might have done or might not have done. One’s own deeds one should observe, those deeds done and those never done.
 Satta dhammā passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti – paṇītabhojanasevanatā, utusukhasevanatā, iriyāpathasukhasevanatā, majjhattapayogatā, sāraddhakāyapuggalaparivajjanatā, passaddhakāyapuggalasevanatā, tadadhimuttatāti.
 These important qualities will be explained in more detail in the last chapter on the constituents of the Eightfold Noble Path: see the chapter on samadhi.
 Dasa dhammā samādhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti – vatthuvisadakiriyatā, indriyasamattapaṭipādanatā, nimittakusalatā, samaye cittassa paggaṇhanatā, samaye cittassa niggaṇhanatā, samaye sampahaṃsanatā, samaye ajjhupekkhanatā, asamāhitapuggalaparivajjanatā, samāhitapuggalasevanatā, tadadhimuttatāti.
 saṅkhāramajjhattatā: The difficult term saṅkhāra has been explained, mostly translated as mental conditioned reaction. For a meditator this term becomes clear by his own practise and the advice given: Whatever arises in his mind and body during meditational observation should be looked upon remotely like an objective, neutral observer without any reaction of liking and disliking.
 Pañca dhammā upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya saṃvattanti – sattamajjhattatā, saṅkhāramajjhattatā, sattasaṅkhārakelāyanapuggalaparivajjanatā, sattasaṅkhāramajjhattapuggalasevanatā, tadadhimuttatāti.
 Pabbatavaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Maggasaṃyuttaṃ, Saṃyuttanikāyo
 tasmā sā loṇadhūpanaṃ viya sabbabyañjanesu… sabbattha icchitabbā
 Dasavidhaappanākosallaṃ, Pathavīkasiṇaniddeso, Visuddhimaggo
 uddhaccapakkhikānaṃ: uddhacca + pakkhikānaṃ: agitation + contributing to
 uddhaccapātato: uddhacca + pātato: agitation + throwing
 kosajjapakkhena: kosajja + pakkhena: idleness + contributing to
 kosajjapātato: kosajja + pātato: idleness + throwing
 ārakkhapaccupaṭṭhānā: ārakkha + paccupaṭṭhānā: protection + provision, attending to
 paggahaniggaho: paggahaniggaho: exertion + restraint, coercion
 Dasavidhaappanākosallaṃ, Pathavīkasiṇaniddeso
 In this program of ETP the reader will find the Ānāpānassatisutta divided into three selections. This is done as different parts of this longer sutta should fit to the emphasis of the respective chapter. Ānāpānassatisutta part 1 (see lesson 1.4.6) highlights the qualities of present Bhikkhus to get inspiration following their example. Ānāpānassatisutta part 2, the present selection (actually last in the original) deals with the effort needed to fulfil the enlightenment-factors and Ānāpānassatisutta part 3 (see lesson 3.8.3) is assigned to the chapter on awareness, sati.
 see chapter 3.8 sammāsati
 see also present sutta
 … dvayena vūpakāsena vūpakaṭṭho viharati – kāyavūpakāsena ca cittavūpakāsena ca. So tathā vūpakaṭṭho viharanto taṃ dhammaṃ anussarati anuvitakketi.
 … satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti; satisambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti; satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati. Quotes here are from the Sīlasutta – wording is nearly the same as in the present sutta. So translation and vocabulary may be researched there!
 … Yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhu tathā sato viharanto taṃ dhammaṃ paññāya pavicinati pavicarati parivīmaṃsamāpajjati, dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti; dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti; dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati.
 Tassa taṃ dhammaṃ paññāya pavicinato pavicarato parivīmaṃsamāpajjato āraddhaṃ hoti vīriyaṃ asallīnaṃ. Yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno taṃ dhammaṃ paññāya pavicinato pavicarato parivīmaṃsamāpajjato āraddhaṃ hoti vīriyaṃ asallīnaṃ, vīriyasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti; vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti; vīriyasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati.
 … Āraddhavīriyassa uppajjati pīti nirāmisā.
 … Pītimanassa kāyopi passambhati, cittampi passambhati.
 … Passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati. Yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati, samādhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti; samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti; samādhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati.
 The Visuddhimaggo highlights two kinds of deep concentration: Duvidho hi samādhi upacārasamādhi ca appanāsamādhi ca. The description says that the first–upacārasamādhi– is called access concentration because by the abandonment of the hindrances deep concentration is achieved. But comparing it with a boy who is uplifted but later on put back on the ground this access concentration is not durable. The second–appanāsamādhi– is called concentration through absorption by entering the different states of the jhanas and can be maintained for longer periods. For more details see chapter 3.9 sammāsamādhi.
 … tathāsamāhitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti
 … Yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhu tathāsamāhitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti; upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti; upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati.
 Mahāvaggapāḷi, Dīghanikāyo
 … Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu. Kathañca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa satisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa satisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti tañca pajānāti.
 Paṭhamakusalasuttaṃ, Nīvaraṇavaggo
 The akaniṭṭha sphere is the field of beings, called the supreme Brahmas, the last field (27th.) of beings having material body and consciousness. The next ‘higher’ field is the sphere of arūpabrahmaloka of beings having practiced the fifth to eighth jhanic absorption, where vipassana cannot be practiced.
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