Introduction to 3.7.8 Nīvaraṇapabbaṃ – Mastering the Hindrances

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa


Introduction to 3.7.8 Nīvaraṇapabbaṃ – 
Mastering the Hindrances

 

Niddā tandī vijambhitā1, aratī bhattasammado2.

etena nappakāsati3, ariyamaggo idha pāṇinan.

Niddaṃ tandiṃ vijambhitaṃ, aratiṃ bhattasammadaṃ;

vīriyena naṃ paṇāmetvā, ariyamaggo visujjhatī”ti. 4


“Slumber, sloth, yawning, aversion (to work), drowsiness after meals –

Through these the Noble Path does not become manifest to living beings in this world.

Slumber, sloth, yawning, aversion (to work) and drowsiness after meals –

Driving these out with vigorous energy, the Noble Path becomes clear.”


      Everybody has to face them! Everybody stumbles upon them and surely everybody encountered how they suddenly changed an originally intended course of action!

     This chapter deals with the pañca nīvaraṇāni (kāmacchando, byāpādo, thīnamiddha, uddhaccakukkucca vicikicchā) - which the common translation refers to as obstacles or hindrances. The meditation teacher S.N. Goenka describes them quite rightly as enemies. For an ardent meditator the nīvaraṇāni constantly stand in the way and make it difficult to pursue one’s focus on chosen meditational objects as they arise suddenly and firmly and mingle with deep emotions – so ongoing effort and permanent pahānappadhāna5 is demanded.

     In the Upakkilesasuttaṃ6 the Buddha highlights the effect they generally inflict on the mind. Here the mind gets compared with gold corrupted and spoiled through the following five components: ayo; loha; tipu; sīsa and sajjhuiron; copper; tin; lead and silver. Likewise each of the pañca nīvaraṇāni corrupts the mind and disenables the mental capacities to work with proper focus on the path of liberation:

Evameva kho, bhikkhave, pañcime cittassa upakkilesā, yehi upakkilesehi upakkiliṭṭhaṃ cittaṃ na ceva mudu7 hoti na ca kammaniyaṃ, na ca pabhassaraṃ8 pabhaṅgu9 ca, na ca sammā samādhiyati āsavānaṃ khayāya. Katame pañca? Kāmacchando, bhikkhave, cittassa upakkileso, yena upakkilesena upakkiliṭṭhaṃ cittaṃ na ceva mudu hoti na ca kammaniyaṃ, na ca pabhassaraṃ pabhaṅgu ca, na ca sammā samādhiyati āsavānaṃ khayāya…pe… byāpādo …pe… thinamiddha …pe… uddhaccakukkucca …pe… vicikicchā …pe … ime kho, bhikkhave, pañca cittassa upekkilesā, yehi upakkilesehi upakkiliṭṭhaṃ cittaṃ na ceva mudu hoti na ca kammaniyaṃ, na ca pabhassaraṃ pabhaṅgu ca, na ca sammā samādhiyati āsavānaṃ khayāyā’’ti.


In the same way, Bhikkhus, these five corruptions influence the mind. When contaminated by these corruptions the mind is neither tender, not manageable, nor is it found to be bright - but is fragile and not able to correctly concentrate on the destruction of the impurities. What are those five? It is the sensual (sexual) desire, Bhikkus that corrupts the mind. When contaminated by sensual (sexual) desire the mind is neither tender, not manageable, nor is it found to be bright but is fragile and not able to correctly concentrate on the destruction of the impurities. Likewise aversion……, sloth and torpor……, agitation and remorse…… and doubt corrupt the mind. When contaminated by (any of) these the mind is neither tender, not manageable, nor is it found to be bright - but is fragile and not able to correctly concentrate on the destruction of the impurities.


     Why are they called obstacles or hindrances and why do they operate like curtains that disenable one perceiving people, encountering situations or seeing things without bias or prejudice as they really are? S. N. Goenka compares them with unwelcome guests that enter the house and turn into its owners. That is it is difficult to get rid of them but easy to get attached to them and their emotional offshoots! The pañca nīvaraṇāni embroil the mind during meditation, covertly entangle the mind without any pre-waring or further notice by generating uninvited thoughts, emotions and worries. They fabricate plans, inner dialogues and lead away from the object of meditation without notice!

     At one time, a Brahmin by the name of Saṅgārava10 visited the Buddha at Sāvatthi and shared his worries11: He had noticed that although he should be able to know his hymns very well by heart and in spite of reciting these on a regular bases he often witnessed occasions where he couldn’t remember any of them. The Buddha made use of this narrative and indicates the pañca nīvaraṇāni. He applies a simile of an undisturbed watersurface, that should reflect one’s face smoothly and properly – but this is not possible because it is disturbed and soiled:

Yasmiṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, samaye kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhitena12 cetasā viharati kāmarāgaparetena, uppannassa ca kāmarāgassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi13 mantā nappaṭibhanti14, pageva15 asajjhāyakatā. Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto16 saṃsaṭṭho17 lākhāya vā haliddiyā vā nīliyā vā mañjiṭṭhāya vā. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno18 yathābhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati kāmarāgaparetena, uppannassa ca kāmarāgassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā –

At such a time, Brāhmiṇ, when the mind is overtaken by sensual craving and desire and afflicted with craving and desire one knows no escape from the arisen craving and desire, at such a time one does not recognize nor perceive one’s own true benefit, at such a time one does not understand nor see the true benefit of others and at such a time he does not understand nor see one’s own true benefit and not that of others. Then even those hymns that were repeated many times do not resurface in the mind and much less those that have not been repeated. It is like a bowl of water that is mixed with lac, turmeric, indigo or crimson. If here a good sighted man was to look at his reflection he wouldn’t be able to see it truly reflected. In the same way when the mind is overtaken by sensual craving and desire and afflicted with craving and desire one knows no escape from the arisen craving and desire, at such a time one does not recognize nor perceive one’s own true benefit, at such a time one does not understand nor see the true benefit of others and at such a time he does not understand nor see one’s own true benefit and not that of others. Then even those hymns that were repeated many times do not resurface in the mind and much less those that have not been repeated.


     What constitutes the power of each of these hindrances to infringe such a sturdy impact on the mind? Naturally as soon as one’s mind gets deluded by thoughts, memories or images of passion and lust, or likewise by other sensual enjoyments, proper meditation is out of question. References to kāmacchando can be found in some of the previous chapters that show the dangers of passion in more detail19. Special reference here is given to a previous text – the Methunasuttaṃ20. Here the Buddha warns the Bhikkhus how easily the mind gets disturbed by sexual thoughts, imaginations, memories and how these endanger the ‘holy path’.

     Thus comparing the first of the hindrances kāmacchando with contaminated, discolored and stained water that doesn’t allow proper vision and reflection, the Buddha then continues to link byāpādo with heated, boiling and bubbling water. The saying ‘boiling with anger’– probably well experienced by most, easily being recalled and often maintained over a excessive length of time – already correctly describes the effect of a mindset filled with aversion, ill-will, animosity, anger or hatred:

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto agginā santatto pakkuthito usmudakajāto21. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathābhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye byāpādapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati byāpādaparetena, uppannassa ca byāpādassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Brāhmiṇ, imagine a bowl of water heated by a fire, bubbling and boiling. If here a good sighted man was to look at his reflection he wouldn’t be able to see it truly reflected. In the same way when the mind is overtaken by anger and afflicted with ill will one knows no escape from the arisen anger, at such a time one does not recognize nor perceive one’s own true benefit, at such a time one does not understand nor see the true benefit of others and at such a time he does not understand nor see one’s own true benefit and not that of others. Then even those hymns that were repeated many times do not resurface in the mind and much less those that have not been repeated.


     Thīnamiddha, a compound created from the words thīna and middha signifies two different effects on the mind although their input is quite similar. Thīna, commonly translated as sloth refers to the impact of mental lethargy, sluggishness, tiredness, stiffness and results in inability to remain alert and attentive.22 Middha, commonly translated as torpor constitutes its physical counterpart: tendency of yawning, dozing, nodding and general fatigue.23 The Visuddhimagga24 points to the proximate cause of both – that is the unwise attention to boredom, laziness and suchlike: Ubhayampi arativijambhikādīsu25 ayonisomanasikārapadaṭṭhānaṃ. It also accentuates that thīna functions through stiffening, lack of earnestness, removes energy - respectively middha makes one apathetic, results in paralysis of resolution, lack of vigor and manifests as laziness, nodding and sleepiness26.

     The Buddha equals thīnamiddha with water overgrown with all sorts of plants that don’t allow proper vision and reflection:

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto sevālapaṇakapariyonaddho27. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathābhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye thīnamiddhapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati thīnamiddhaparetena, uppannassa ca thīnamiddhassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā

Brāhmiṇ, imagine a bowl of water covered by moss and fern. If here a good sighted man was to look at his reflection he wouldn’t be able to see it truly reflected. In the same way when the mind is overtaken by sloth and torpor one knows no escape from the arisen sloth and torpor, at such a time one does not recognize nor perceive one’s own true benefit, at such a time one does not understand nor see the true benefit of others and at such a time he does not understand nor see one’s own true benefit and not that of others. Then even those hymns that were repeated many times do not resurface in the mind and much less those that have not been repeated.”


     Uddhaccakukkucca likewise is a compound formed from uddhacca, commonly translated as restlessness, and kukkucca, translated as worry. Also here the impact on the mind is rather similar although each one has its own specific feature: uddhacca28 refers to unbalanced striving and eagerness to achieve whatsoever goal in one’s vision (including unbalanced eagerness to reach the goal of liberation29); kukkucca casts doubt on one’s actions, one’s moral or ethics, generates remorse feeling, repentance and lack of decidedness. Uddhaccakukkucca is paralleled by the Buddha to water that is rippling and moving about in wavelets and circles, not allowing proper vision and reflection30:

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto vāterito calito bhanto ūmijāto31. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathābhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye uddhaccakukkuccapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati uddhaccakukkuccaparetena, uppannassa ca uddhaccakukkuccassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā -

Brāhmiṇ, imagine a bowl of water moved by wind, through waves shaking and whirling about. If here a good sighted man was to look at his reflection he wouldn’t be able to see it truly reflected. In the same way when the mind is overtaken by restlessness and afflicted with worry one knows no escape from the arisen restlessness and worry, at such a time one does not recognize nor perceive one’s own true benefit, at such a time one does not understand nor see the true benefit of others and at such a time he does not understand nor see one’s own true benefit and not that of others. Then even those hymns that were repeated many times do not resurface in the mind and much less those that have not been repeated.


     The last nīvaraṇa: vicikicchā – doubt, breeds various forms and easily focusses on all kind of objects. It may put into question one’s own ability, skills, qualities or character in general or likewise direct itself on one’s way of life, actions, thoughts, behavior etc.32 For a meditator it often fosters questioning one’s progress on the path, one’s ability to proceed, but also the correctness of the path or the teaching in general. Its counterpart is a muddy and murky mixture placed in a bowl during dark before one’s eyes:

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto āvilo luḷito kalalībhūto andhakāre nikkhitto. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathābhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vicikicchāparetena, uppannāya ca vicikicchāya nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathābhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā. Ayaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, hetu ayaṃ paccayo yenekadā dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Brāhmiṇ, imagine a bowl of water in the dark, stained, murky and muddy. If here a good sighted man was to look at his reflection he wouldn’t be able to see it truly reflected. In the same way when the mind is overtaken by doubt one knows no escape from the arisen doubt, at such a time one does not recognize nor perceive one’s own true benefit, at such a time one does not understand nor see the true benefit of others and at such a time he does not understand nor see one’s own true benefit and not that of others. Then even those hymns that were repeated many times do not resurface in the mind and much less those that have not been repeated.”


     Comparing the body that - sustained and maintained by nutriment depends on provided nourishment - is unable to exist without it in general – likewise it is the careless, improper attention directed on the respective objects of each of these hindrances that sustains, maintains and fosters them as their nutriment. Without this they wouldn’t be able to prevail: ‘‘Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ayaṃ kāyo āhāraṭṭhitiko, āhāraṃ paṭicca tiṭṭhati, anāhāro no tiṭṭhati; evameva kho, bhikkhave, pañca nīvaraṇā āhāraṭṭhitikā, āhāraṃ paṭicca tiṭṭhanti, anāhārā no tiṭṭhanti.”33

     Thus the object for kāmacchanda is a pleasurable, beautiful object. Repeated and careless attention given to those objects fosters and helps yet unarisen kāmacchanda not only to arise, but to develop and multiply:

Ko ca, bhikkhave, āhāro anuppannassa vā kāmacchandassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā kāmacchandassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya? Atthi, bhikkhave, subhanimittaṃ34. Tattha ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro35 – ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā kāmacchandassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā kāmacchandassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya.”

In similar ways –ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro– negligence and repeatedly giving careless attention to repulsiveness, an object that causes repugnance –paṭighanimittaṃ– fosters ill will36. Likewise –thinamiddha– gets increased and multiplied by frequently giving leeway to arati tandi vijambhitā bhattasammado cetaso ca līnattaṃ – discontent, lethargy, laziness, drowsiness after meals and mental sluggishness37. In the same way an irritated, unsettled and indecisive mind –cetaso avūpasamo– helps to increase –bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāyauddhaccakukkucca38 and repeated careless attention focusing on all things that foster doubt –vicikicchāṭṭhānīyā dhammā– will increase and multiply vicikicchā39.


     The selected text for this lesson, the chapter referring to the pañca nīvaraṇāni from the Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ describes an important method how to overcome these obstacles. One has to learn and train oneself not falling into the trap of ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro by dealing with them in a remote, distant and observative manner and abandoning all pañca nīvaraṇāni. Therefore the first step is to realistically gain full recognition and awareness of their presence: atthi me ajjhattaṃ … pajānāti’. A next step is to give this awareness space and time clearly but continuously to observe what happens, how the respective obstacles can disappear and will not present themselves any longer: natthi me ajjhattaṃ … pajānāti’…. As a result of the disappearance new waves of it will arise: ‘anuppannāya uppādo hoti … pajānāti’. Maintaining mindfulness, awareness and balanced observation without reaction, it becomes manifest that what has arisen can also get abandoned and left behind: uppannāya … pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti’, and how that, what has been abandoned will not arise in future: ‘yathā ca pahīnāya … āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti’. All this of course is not a theoretical exegesis; it is the challenge for any meditator to face these ‘enemies’. While facing them through observation he trains him/herself to gain insight into their respective nature, learns that their removal is possible by slowly eliminating their pushing, intruding force.

     It may also be noted here, that the Buddha points out in the Pariyāyasuttaṃ40 that for an ardent follower of the path all the these hindrances are to be realised as twofold41 and need to be understood as arriving from inside and likewise from outside – thus making them ten.

     One may get further inspiration for one’s struggle against the hindrances here by the commentary42 which points to some six supportive ‘friends’ for each of them that reinforce on the path:

     Six factors43 help with the removal of kāmacchandassa: Acquisition of the sign of ‘foulness’; devotion to meditate on foulness; protecting and guarding the sense faculties; knowing the proper (moderate) amount of food; maintaining supportive friendship44 on the path and suitable talk.45
Likewise exist six components46 that support the struggle with getting rid of byāpāda: Acquisition of the sign of lovingkindness, metta; developing the practise of metta; reflection on the result of one’s own actions47; frequent proper consideration; maintaining supportive friendship on the path and suitable talk.
The following six components48 drive out thinamiddha: Learning not to overeat; changing postures; attending to perception of light; dwelling in the open; maintaining supportive friendship on the path and suitable talk.
Again six constituents49 assist shunning uddhaccakukkucca: Being properly studied; proper examination; understanding the Vinaya; fellowship with mature associates; maintaining supportive friendship on the path and suitable talk.
Similarly do the same six factors also help to drive out vicikicchā at the same time.50


Again, the essence is expressed in the following summary of the Buddha:

Pāpaṃ pāpakato passathā’ti – ayaṃ paṭhamā dhammadesanā;

pāpaṃ pāpakato disvā tattha nibbindatha virajjatha vimuccathā’ti

ayaṃ dutiyā dhammadesanā.51

You should realise what is evil as evil – this is the first Dhamma-teaching.

Having understood evil as evil you should shun it, free yourself from it and liberate yourself therefrom – this is the second Dhamma teaching.


1 niddā: sleep, sleepiness; tandī: weariness, sloth; vijambhitā: yawning

2 bhattasammado: bhatta + sammado: food + drowsiness

3 nappakāsati: na+p+pakāsati: not + become manifest

4 Saṃyuttanikāyo, Sagāthāvaggo, Devatāsaṃyuttaṃ, Nandanavaggo, Niddātandīsuttaṃ

5 See 3.7.3 Saṃvarasuttaṃ: ‘Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu uppannaṃ kāmavitakkaṃ nādhivāseti pajahati vinodeti byantīkaroti anabhāvaṃ gameti; uppannaṃ byāpādavitakkaṃ nādhivāseti pajahati vinodeti byantīkaroti anabhāvaṃ gameti;uppannaṃ vihiṃsāvitakkaṃ nādhivāseti pajahati vinodeti byantīkaroti anabhāvaṃ gameti; uppannuppanne pāpake akusale dhamme nādhivāseti pajahati vinodeti byantīkaroti anabhāvaṃ gameti.’

6 Upakkilesasuttaṃ, Nīvaraṇavaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Mahāvaggo, Saṃyuttanikāyo

7 mudu: weak, soft, tender

8 pabhassara: shining, very bright, resplendent

9 pabhaṅgu: brittle, easily destroyed, perishable, frail

10 The same Brahmin Saṅgāravo also asked the Buddha how the ocean of misery can be crossed. See lesson 1.3.1 - Saṅgāravasuttaṃ. The Buddha in the current discourse explains not only how the hindrances can be overcome but then also continues portraying satta bojjhaṅge, the seven factors of enlightenment. Being without any hindrance provides the neccessary base for these and the realization of true knowledge! See here next lesson: 3.7.8 Ānāpānassatisutta. Being thrilled after this very discourse Brahmin Saṅgāravo declares himself a lay follower.

11 Saṅgāravasuttaṃ, Sākacchavaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Mahāvaggo, Saṃyuttanikāyo

12 kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhitena: kāma + raga + pariyuṭṭhitena: sensual desire + craving + being posessed

13 sajjhāyakatāpi: sajjhāya + kata +api: repetition + made + and

14 nappaṭibhanti: na + p + paṭibhanti: not + become evident, come into one’s mind

15 pageva: much more or less

16 udapatto: water + bowl

17 saṃsaṭṭho: associated, joined

18 paccavekkhamāno (ger.): looking, considering

19 See lesson 3.5.7 Rūpādivaggo - The One Thing that Upsets the Mind

20 See lesson 3.5.8 Methunasuttaṃ - How to Live a Real Celibate Life? - the introduction here also dwells in more details on kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī as well as on abrahmacariyā veramaṇī and its commentary explanations.

21 usmudakajāto: usmā + udaka + jāto: heat + water + produced

22 Tattha katamaṃ thinaṃ? Yā cittassa akalyatā akammaññatā olīyanā sallīyanā līnaṃ līyanā līyitattaṃ thinaṃ thiyanā thiyitattaṃ cittassa – idaṃ vuccati ‘‘thinaṃ’’. - What is sloth? Here mental inability, mental unreadiness, adhering, stolidity, sluggishness, being sluggish and the state of being sluggish, sloth, being slothful and the state of being slothful in the mind – that is what is meant by sloth. Suttantabhājanīyaṃ, Jhānavibhaṅgo, Vibhaṅgapāḷi, Abhidhammapiṭake

23 Tattha katamaṃ middhaṃ? Yā kāyassa akalyatā akammaññatā onāho pariyonāho antosamorodho middhaṃ suppaṃ pacalāyikā suppaṃ suppanā suppitattaṃ – idaṃ vuccati ‘‘middhaṃ’’. – What is torpor? Here physical inability, physical unreadiness, covering, shrouding, barricading from within, torpor, drowsiness, doozing, sleeping, being asleep, the state of being asleep – this is what is called torpor. Suttantabhājanīyaṃ, Jhānavibhaṅgo, Vibhaṅgapāḷi, Abhidhammapiṭake

24 Saṅkhārakkhandhakathā, Khandhaniddeso

25 arativijambhikādīsu: arati + vijambhika + ādīsu: dislike, discontent + rousing + and so forth

26 Tattha thinanatā thinaṃ. Middhanatā middhaṃ. Anussāhasaṃhananatā asattivighāto cāti attho. Thinañca middhañca thinamiddhaṃ. Tattha thinaṃ anussāhalakkhaṇaṃ, vīriyavinodanarasaṃ, saṃsīdanapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. Middhaṃ akammaññatālakkhaṇaṃ, onahanarasaṃ, līnatāpaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, pacalāyikāniddāpaccupaṭṭhānaṃ vā.

27 sevālapaṇakapariyonaddho: sevāla + paṇaka + pariyonaddho: moss + fern + tied down, covered

28 Tattha katamaṃ uddhaccaṃ? Yaṃ cittassa uddhaccaṃ avūpasamo cetaso vikkhepo bhantattaṃ cittassa – idaṃ vuccati ‘‘uddhaccaṃ’’. – And what is restlessness? It is mental disquietude, perplexity in the mind, a state of confusedness this is what is called restlessness. Suttantabhājanīyaṃ, Jhānavibhaṅgo, Vibhaṅgapāḷi, Abhidhammapiṭake

29 SN V 277 see there, compare also the lesson referring to Soṇa Thera (3.7.9)

30 Tattha katamaṃ kukkuccaṃ? Akappiye kappiyasaññitā, kappiye akappiyasaññitā, avajje vajjasaññitā, vajje avajjasaññitā, yaṃ evarūpaṃ kukkuccaṃ kukkuccāyanā kukkuccāyitattaṃ cetaso vippaṭisāro manovilekhā – idaṃ vuccati ‘‘kukkuccaṃ’’. – And what is worry? Evaluating proper for not-proper, evaluating what is not proper for proper, mistaking balamable for unblameful, mistaking unblameful for blameworthy, likewise having remorse, being remorseful, the state of remorsefulness, mental repentance and regretfulness in the mind – this is called worry. Suttantabhājanīyaṃ, Jhānavibhaṅgo, Vibhaṅgapāḷi, Abhidhammapiṭake

31 vāterito calito bhanto ūmi + jāto: moved by wind + shaking + whirling +wave + caused

32 Tattha katamā vicikicchā? Yā kaṅkhā kaṅkhāyanā kaṅkhāyitattaṃ vimati vicikicchā dveḷhakaṃ dvidhāpatho saṃsayo anekaṃsaggāho āsappanā parisappanā apariyogāhaṇā chambhitattaṃ cittassa manovilekho – ayaṃ vuccati ‘‘vicikicchā’’. – Here what is doubt? It is doubt, being doubtful, the state of doubtfulness, perplexity, uncertainty, skepticism, wavering in two ways, hesitation, having different misconceptions, distrust, trembling, incapability to plunge into, fearfulness, meantal confusion – thsi is what is called doubt. Suttantabhājanīyaṃ, Jhānavibhaṅgo, Vibhaṅgapāḷi, Abhidhammapiṭake

33 This and the following quotes are from Kāyasuttaṃ, Pabbatavaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Maggasaṃyuttaṃ

34 In subhanimittaṃ nimitta is translated as beautiful object, likewise in the following paṭighanimittaṃ as object of aversion. In the reference of the quoted Saṅgāravasuttaṃ as facial reflectionmukhanimittaṃ.

Nimitta in general is translated as sign, especially in reference to meditation: as an object or sign meditation focusses on or a sign that may arise during meditation, a sign of insight or concentration.

35 ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro: ayoniso + manasikāra + bahulīkāro: careless, improper + attention + attending to many times, often. The commentary (Kāyasuttavaṇṇanā): Ayonisomanasikāroti anupāyamanasikāro uppathamanasikāro anicce ‘‘nicca’’nti vā, dukkhe ‘‘sukha’’nti, anattani ‘‘attā’’ti vā, asubhe ‘‘subha’’nti vā, manasikāro.- Giving careless attention is unmethotical attention, ‘wrong-path’ attention by mistaking impermanet as permanent, the painful as happiness, the non self as teh self and what is unpleasant as pleasant.

36 Ko ca, bhikkhave, āhāro anuppannassa vā byāpādassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā byāpādassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya? Atthi, bhikkhave, paṭighanimittaṃ. Tattha ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro – ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā byāpādassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā byāpādassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya.

37 Ko ca, bhikkhave, āhāro anuppannassa vā thinamiddhassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā thinamiddhassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya? Atthi, bhikkhave, arati tandi vijambhitā bhattasammado cetaso ca līnattaṃ. Tattha ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro – ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā thinamiddhassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā thinamiddhassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya.

38 Ko ca, bhikkhave, āhāro anuppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya? Atthi, bhikkhave, cetaso avūpasamo. Tattha ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro – ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya.

39 Ko ca, bhikkhave, āhāro anuppannāya vā vicikicchāya uppādāya, uppannāya vā vicikicchāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya? Atthi, bhikkhave, vicikicchāṭṭhānīyā dhammā. Tattha ayonisomanasikārabahulīkāro – ayamāhāro anuppannāya vā vicikicchāya uppādāya, uppannāya vā vicikicchāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya.

40 Sākacchavaggo

41 ‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, pariyāyo, yaṃ pariyāyaṃ āgamma pañca nīvaraṇā dasa honti? Yadapi, bhikkhave, ajjhattaṃ kāmacchando tadapi nīvaraṇaṃ, yadapi bahiddhā kāmacchando tadapi nīvaraṇaṃ. ‘Kāmacchandanīvaraṇa’nti iti hidaṃ uddesaṃ gacchati. Tadamināpetaṃ pariyāyena dvayaṃ hoti. Yadapi, bhikkhave, ajjhattaṃ byāpādo tadapi nīvaraṇaṃ, yadapi bahiddhā byāpādo tadapi nīvaraṇaṃ. ……”

42 all quotes here from: Āhārasuttavaṇṇanā, Sākacchavaggo, Bojjhaṅgasaṃyuttaṃ, Saṃyuttanikāye, Mahāvagga-aṭṭhakathā

43 Apica cha dhammā kāmacchandassa pahānāya saṃvattanti – asubhanimittassa uggaho, asubhabhāvanānuyogo, indriyesu guttadvāratā, bhojane mattaññutā, kalyāṇamittatā, sappāyakathāti.

44 see 3.1.8 Upaḍḍhasuttaṃ - The Importance of a Kalyāṇamitta

45 see here especially chapter 3.4. - 3.4.3 Vācāsuttaṃ - What are the Characteristics’ of Blameless Speech?; 3.4.4 Musāvādasuttaṃ - The Consequences of Wrong Speech; 3.4.6 Cundasuttaṃ-1 - About Speech that should be Avoided and that should be Performed , 3.4.7 Tiracchānakathāsuttaṃ - Avoiding Idle Chatter?

46 Apica cha dhammā byāpādassa pahānāya saṃvattanti – mettānimittassa uggaho, mettābhāvanānuyogo, kammassakatāpaccavekkhaṇatā, paṭisaṅkhānabahulatā, kalyāṇamittatā, sappāyakathāti.

47 see 2.1.3 Abhiṇhapaccavekkhitabbaṭhānasuttaṃ - Born of One`s own Kamma

48 Api ca cha dhammā thinamiddhassa pahānāya saṃvattanti – atibhojane nimittaggāho, iriyāpathasamparivattanatā, ālokasaññāmanasikāro, abbhokāsavāso, kalyāṇamittatā, sappāyakathāti.

49 Apica cha dhammā uddhaccakukkuccassa pahānāya saṃvattanti – bahussutatā, paripucchakatā, vinaye pakataññutā, vuddhasevitatā, kalyāṇamittatā, sappāyakathāti.

50 Apica cha dhammā vicikicchāya pahānāya saṃvattanti – bahussutatā, paripucchakatā, vinaye pakataññutā, adhimokkhabahulatā, kalyāṇamittatā, sappāyakathāti.

51 Desanāsuttaṃ, Dutiyavaggo, Dukanipāto, Itivuttakapāḷi

***

Pāli lesson (with audio) 3.7.8

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Last modified: Monday, 25 February 2019, 3:54 PM